Author Contributions: Mr Miller had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Miller, Korenromp.
Acquisition of data: Miller.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Miller, Korenromp, Nahlen, Steketee.
Drafting of the manuscript: Miller, Korenromp, Nahlen.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Miller, Korenromp, Nahlen, Steketee.
Statistical analysis: Miller, Korenromp.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Miller, Steketee.
Study supervision: Miller, Nahlen, Steketee.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Mr Miller was supported through a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to PATH MACEPA. Dr Korenromp received financial support from a Van Rijn fellowship at Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam.
Role of the Sponsors: Both PATH and the GFATM (employer of Drs Korenromp and Nahlen at the time of submission) reviewed the article internally and approved its submission to JAMA and its publication. Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam had no part in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We are grateful to Jo Lines, PhD, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and Carlos (Kent) Campbell, MD, and Abdirahman Mohamed, MD, PATH MACEPA, for their thoughtful reviews and comments on earlier versions of the manuscript.