Author Contributions: Drs Fox and Hamer had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Hamer, Ndhlovu, Zurovac, Yeboah-Antwi, Sipilanyambe, Snow.
Acquisition of data: Hamer, Ndhlovu, Zurovac, Yeboah-Antwi.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Hamer, Ndhlovu, Zurovac, Fox, Yeboah-Antwi, Chanda, Sipilanyambe, Simon, Snow.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hamer, Zurovac, Snow.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hamer, Zurovac, Fox, Yeboah-Antwi, Sipilanyambe, Simon, Snow.
Statistical analysis: Zurovac, Fox.
Obtained funding: Hamer, Snow.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Hamer, Ndhlovu, Yeboah-Antwi, Chanda, Sipilanyambe, Simon.
Study supervision: Hamer, Zurovac, Yeboah-Antwi, Simon, Snow.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Hamer reports that he owns shares of Inverness Medical Innovations Inc, a company that produces rapid diagnostic tests for malaria; he also reports that in the past 5 years he has served on the speakers bureau for GlaxoSmithKline. Drs Sipilinyambe, Zurovac, and Snow report receiving a fee for speaking at a meeting organized by Novartis Pharma AG, the manufacturers of artemether-lumefantrine. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: This study received financial support from the Health Systems and Services Program by means of a cooperative agreement (contract 690-C-00-04-00153-00) with the United States Agency for International Development/Zambia and the Wellcome Trust, UK (058992). Dr Snow is a Principal Wellcome Trust Fellow (079080) and acknowledges the support of the Kenyan Medical Research Institute. The Novartis drug Coartem had been purchased for use in health facilities by the Zambian government with funds from the Global Fund Against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Similarly, the government of Zambia procured the rapid diagnostic tests from Orchid Biomedical Laboratories. Neither Novartis nor Orchid Biomedical Laboratories provided any financial or other support to the study.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding sources had no role in study design, analysis, data interpretation, report writing, or the decision to submit the article for publication.
Acknowledgment: We are grateful to the field teams and to all health workers, children, and caretakers who participated in the study. We are grateful for the assistance provided by the Health Systems and Services Program staff: Michael Macdonald, DSc, for his assistance with study coordination and Mubiana Macwan'gi, PhD, for her comments on the study protocol. Drs Macdonald and Macwan'gi were not paid for their contributions. We are also grateful to the data entry clerks: Rodney Katongo, an employee of the National Malaria Control Center, Christine Mwape, and Timalizye Ndhlovu, who were hired from the community for the study and who were financially compensated for their work on the study.