Author Contributions: Dr Idro had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Idro, Ogutu, Berkley, Crawley, Neville, Newton.
Acquisition of data: Idro, Ogutu, Mithwani, Maitland, Berkley, Crawley, Bauni, Peshu, Marsh, Newton.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Idro, Ndiritu, Fegan, Bauni, Neville, Newton.
Drafting of the manuscript: Idro, Ndiritu, Neville, Newton.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ndiritu, Ogutu, Mithwani, Maitland, Berkley, Crawley, Fegan, Bauni, Peshu, Marsh, Neville, Newton.
Statistical analysis: Idro, Ndiritu, Berkley, Fegan, Newton.
Obtained funding: Marsh, Newton.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Mithwani, Berkley, Crawley, Peshu, Marsh, Newton.
Study supervision: Maitland, Bauni, Marsh, Neville, Newton.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The data for this article accumulated from clinical studies supported by the Wellcome Trust and Kenya Medical Research Institute in Kilifi. Drs Maitland, Berkley, Marsh, and Newton are supported by the Wellcome Trust.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations played no role in the design and conduct of the study, the collection, management, analysis and interpretation of data or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We are grateful to the clinical and nursing staff of Kilifi District Hospital who diligently kept patients' records over the years; the records and data management staff who stored, retrieved, and organized the records; and the medical superintendent of the Kilifi District Hospital.