Author Contributions: Dr Wijeysundera had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Wijeysundera, Karkouti, Rao, Chan.
Acquisition of data: Wijeysundera, Karkouti, Dupuis, Beattie.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Wijeysundera, Dupuis, Rao, Granton, Beattie.
Drafting of the manuscript: Wijeysundera.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Wijeysundera, Karkouti, Dupuis, Rao, Chan, Granton, Beattie.
Statistical analysis: Wijeysundera.
Obtained funding: Dupuis, Chan.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Wijeysundera, Karkouti, Dupuis, Chan, Beattie.
Study supervision: Rao.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Wijeysundera is supported by a Clinician Scientist Award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). Dr Karkouti is supported by a New Investigator Award from CIHR and the Canadian Blood Services. Dr Rao is supported by a New Investigator Award from CIHR. Dr Rao is the Alfredo and Teresa DeGasperis Chair in Heart Failure Surgery at the University Health Network. Dr Beattie is the Fraser Elliot Chair of Cardiovascular Anesthesiology at the University Health Network. The Cardiac Anesthesia Division of the University of Ottawa Heart Institute funded data collection at the Ottawa Heart Institute.
Role of the Sponsors: These sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.