Author Contributions: Dr Thamer had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Thamer, Zhang, Kaufman, Cotter, Hernán.
Acquisition of data: Cotter, Dong.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Thamer, Zhang, Kaufman, Cotter, Hernán.
Drafting of the manuscript: Thamer, Zhang, Cotter, Hernán.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Thamer, Kaufman, Cotter, Dong, Hernán.
Statistical analysis: Thamer, Zhang, Hernán.
Obtained funding: Thamer, Cotter.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Cotter, Dong.
Study supervision: Thamer, Kaufman, Cotter, Hernán.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Kaufman reported serving as a consultant and receiving grant support from Amgen and F. Hoffmann-La Roche. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: The research for this article was supported in part by National Institutes of Health grant R01-DK066011-01A2.
Role of the Sponsor: The National Institutes of Health was not involved in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The data were provided by the US Renal Data System but the interpretation and reporting of these data are the responsibility of the authors and in no way should be seen as the official policy or interpretation of the US government.