Author Contributions: Dr Morgan had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Morgan, Lifton, Krumholz, Spertus.
Acquisition of data: Morgan, Lifton, Krumholz, Spertus.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Morgan, Lifton, Krumholz, Spertus.
Drafting of the manuscript: Morgan, Lifton, Krumholz, Spertus.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Morgan, Lifton, Krumholz.
Statistical analysis: Morgan, Lifton.
Obtained funding: Morgan, Lifton, Spertus.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lifton, Spertus.
Study supervision: Lifton, Krumholz, Spertus.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Spertus reports that he serves on the advisory boards of the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, Amgen United Healthcare, Blue Cross/Blue Shield; has received gants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Amgen, CV Therapeutics, Flowcardia, and Roache Diagnostics (in-kind biomarker reagent supplies for an NIH grant); has ownership interests in the Seattle Angina Questionnaire, the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, the Peripheral Artery Questionnaire, and Health Outcomes Sciences; and has consulted within the past 5 years for CV Therapeutics, Amgen, Worldheart, and Ostuka Parmaceuticals. Dr Krumholz reports that he has research contracts with the Colorado Foundation for Medical Care and the American College of Cardiology, serves on the advisory boards for Amgen, Alere, and United Healthcare, is a subject-matter expert for VHA Inc. Drs Morgan and Lifton report no conflicts of interest.
Funding/Support: This project was funded by grants from the Saint Luke's Hospital Foundation, Kansas City, Mo, and by grant R-01 HS11282-01 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Dr Morgan's research in Dr Lifton's laboratory at Yale University was supported by Howard Hughes Medical Institute and by grant NHLBI K23 HI77272, a mentored patient-oriented research grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Role of the Sponsor: None of the funding organizations had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We thank Donna Buchanan, PhD, Mid-America Heart Institute, Kansas City, Mo, for editorial assistance with the manuscript as part of her duties and received no additional compensation.
This article was corrected for typographical errors on 9/6/2007.