Author Contributions: Dr Powe had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Gupta, Melamed, Powe.
Acquisition of data: Fink, Coresh, Fox, Powe.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Gupta, Plantinga, Melamed, Levin, Powe.
Drafting of the manuscript: Gupta, Plantinga.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Gupta, Plantinga, Fink, Melamed, Coresh, Fox, Levin, Powe.
Statistical analysis: Gupta, Plantinga, Powe.
Obtained funding: Coresh, Powe.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Fink, Melamed, Fox, Powe.
Study supervision: Fink, Powe.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grant RO1-DK 59616 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), grant RO1-HS-08365 from the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, and grant RO1-HL 62985 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Dr Powe is supported by grant K24DK02643 from NIDDK and Dr Melamed is supported by grant F32DK069017 from NIDDK.
Role of the Sponsors: None of the granting agencies listed had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: Some of the data reported here have been supplied by the United States Renal Data System. The interpretation and reporting of these data are the responsibility of the authors and in no way should be seen as an official policy or interpretation of the US government.
Acknowledgment: We thank the patients, staff, and medical directors of the participating clinics at Dialysis Clinic Inc and St. Raphael's Hospital who contributed to the study.