Author Contributions: Drs Ross and Krumholz had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the analysis.
Study concept and design: Ross, Lackner, Lurie, Gross, Wolfe, Krumholz.
Acquisition of data: Lackner, Lurie, Krumholz.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Ross, Lackner, Lurie, Krumholz.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ross, Lackner.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Ross, Lackner, Lurie, Gross, Wolfe, Krumholz.
Statistical analysis: Ross, Lackner.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Lurie, Krumholz.
Study supervision: Lurie, Gross, Krumholz.
Financial Disclosures: Drs Ross and Krumholz reported serving as consultants at the request of plaintiffs for recent suits against Merck and Co related to Vioxx. Dr Krumholz reported that he has research contracts with the American College of Cardiology and the Colorado Foundation for Medical Care; is on an advisory board of UnitedHealthcare; serves as a subject matter expert for VHA Inc; and is editor-in-chief of Journal Watch Cardiology of the Massachusetts Medical Society. Dr Krumholz reported that in the past 5 years he has received compensation for service as a consultant to Centegen and served as an advisory board member for Proteus, CV Therapeutics, and Amgen. Drs Gross and Krumholz reported that in the past 5 years they received a research grant from Boehringer-Ingelheim. No other authors reported financial disclosures.
Funding/Support: Dr Ross was a scholar in the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program at Yale University sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation during part of his project involvement. Mr Lackner and Drs Lurie and Wolfe received support from the Irene Diamond Fund during part of their project involvement.
Role of the Sponsors: Neither the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation nor the Irene Diamond Fund had any role in the design or conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We gratefully acknowledge the assistance provided by Stephen S. Cha, MD, MHS, in contributing to the study concept and acquisition of data while he was a scholar in the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program at Yale University, sponsored by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr Cha received no compensation for his work related to this article.