Author Contributions: Drs Rahimi and Krumholz had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Rahimi, Bernheim, Krumholz.
Acquisition of data: Reid, Krumholz.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Rahimi, Spertus, Reid, Krumholz.
Drafting of the manuscript: Rahimi, Reid, Bernheim.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Rahimi, Spertus, Bernheim, Krumholz.
Statistical analysis: Rahimi, Reid.
Obtained funding: Spertus, Krumholz.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Spertus.
Study supervision: Krumholz.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Spertus reported that he has a research grant from Cardiovascular Therapeutics Inc, and was a consultant for that company. Dr Bernheim was a fellow in the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program during the time the work was conducted. Dr Krumholz reported that he was a consultant for Cardiovascular Therapeutics Inc.
Participating Sites:Academic Centers: Harvard-Beth Israel (David Cohen, MD, SM); Yale-New Haven Hospital (Harlan Krumholz, MD, SM); Duke University (Eric Peterson, MD, MSc); Washington University (Richard Bach, MD); University of Alabama (John Canto, MD); University of Colorado (John Rumsfeld, MD, PhD, John Messenger, MD). Inner-City Hospitals: Truman Medical Center (John Spertus, MD, MPH); Grady Health System (Viola Vaccarino, MD, PhD, William Weintraub, MD, Susmita Parashar, MD); Henry Ford Hospital (Jane Jie Cao, MD, MPH); Denver General Hospitals (Edward Havranek, MD, Frederick Masoudi, MD, MSPH). Single-Payer Systems: Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Hospital (Paul Heidenreich, MD, MPH); Denver Veterans Affairs Hospital (John Rumsfeld, MD, PhD); Colorado Kaiser-Permanente (David Magid, MD). Nonuniversity Hospitals: Sentara Health System (John Brush, MD); Meritcare (Walter Radtke, MD); Baptist Healthcare (Gary Collins, MD)*; Swedish Medical Center (Tim Dewhurst, MD)*; Mid America Heart Institute (John Spertus, MD, MPH). *Terminated the study early due to administrative changes in their organizations that prevented sustainable data collection.
Funding/Support: This work was funded in large part by Cardiovascular Therapeutics Inc, Palo Alto, Calif; Cardiovascular Outcomes Inc, Kansas City, Mo; and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (P50 HL077113).
Role of the Sponsor: Cardiovascular Therapeutics did not play a role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript.