Author Contributions: Drs Nallamothu, Rogers, and Birkmeyer had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Nallamothu, Rogers, Chernew, Eagle, Birkmeyer.
Acquisition of data: Nallamothu, Birkmeyer.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Nallamothu, Rogers, Krumholz, Eagle, Birkmeyer.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nallamothu, Rogers.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Nallamothu, Rogers, Chernew, Krumholz, Eagle, Birkmeyer.
Statistical analysis: Nallamothu, Rogers, Chernew.
Obtained funding: Nallamothu, Birkmeyer.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Nallamothu, Eagle, Birkmeyer.
Study supervision: Eagle, Birkmeyer.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This project was supported by a grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (1R01HS015571-01A1). Dr Nallamothu completed part of this work while supported as a clinical scholar under a K12 grant from the National Institutes of Health (RR017607-01).
Role of the Sponsor: The agencies and foundations that funded this work were not involved in the design and conduct of the study; in data management or analysis; or in manuscript preparation.
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Health and Human Services, or the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Acknowledgment: We are grateful to Phillip J. Tedeschi, PhD, and Nancy J.O. Birkmeyer, PhD, for their roles in preparing data. Dr Tedeschi was supported by grant 1R01HS015571-01A1 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Dr Birkmeyer did not receive any specific compensation for this work.