Author Contributions: Dr van Dijk had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: van Dijk, Hijman, Borst, Jansen, Grobbee, de Jaegere, Kalkman.
Acquisition of data: van Dijk, Spoor, Nathoe.
Analysis and interpretation of data: van Dijk, Grobbee, Kalkman.
Drafting of the manuscript: van Dijk.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Spoor, Hijman, Nathoe, Borst, Jansen, Grobbee, de Jaegere, Kalkman.
Statistical analysis: van Dijk, Kalkman.
Obtained funding: van Dijk, Grobbee, Kalkman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Spoor.
Study supervision: Hijman, Kalkman.
Financial Disclosures: The Octopus cardiac stabilizer was invented at the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMC Utrecht) and is marketed by Medtronic. The UMC Utrecht receives royalties from the worldwide sale of the device. None of the authors reports a financial or other link with Medtronic, but in the past, Dr Borst reports having been a consultant with Medtronic and Dr Jansen reports having been a member of the scientific advisory board of Medtronic. Medtronic was not involved in the study. Medtronic did not receive any draft manuscript and did not receive the manuscript prior to its publication.
Octopus Study Group:University Medical Center Utrecht: Egidius E. H. L. van Aarnhem, Cornelius Borst, Johan J. Bredée, Lex A. van Herwerden, Erik Buskens, Jan C. Diephuis, Diederik van Dijk, Frank D. Eefting, Diederick E. Grobbee, Ron Hijman, Peter P. T. de Jaegere, Erik W. L. Jansen, René S. Kahn, Johannes T. A. Knape, Cor J. Kalkman, Annemieke M. A. Keizer, Jaap R. Lahpor, Karel G. M. Moons, Hendrik M. Nathoe, and Pieter S. Stella. Isala Clinics, Zwolle: Arno P. Nierich, Harry Suryapranata, and Willem J. L. Suyker. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein: Wim-Jan van Boven and Sjef M. P. G. Ernst. Critical Event Committee: L. Jaap Kappelle, Johan J. Bredée, and Hans Wesenhagen.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by a grant from the International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS).
Role of the Sponsor: The IARS was not involved in the design and conduct of the study nor in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data nor preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We are indebted to the staff members of the Departments of Cardiology, Cardiothoracic Surgery, and Anesthesiology of UMC Utrecht, Isala Clinics in Zwolle, and Antonius Hospital in Nieuwegein for their contribution to the study. We are grateful to Margaret Nicholls, research nurse at the Department of Anesthesiology at the UMC Utrecht, for her important role in the data collection. We are also indebted to L. J. Kappelle, MD, PhD, professor of neurology at the UMC Utrecht, for his critical appraisal of the manuscript. No compensation outside of regular salary was received for Ms Nicholls' or Dr Kappelle's contributions.