Author Contributions: Dr Yang had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Yang, Lewis, Metz.
Acquisition of data: Yang, Lewis, Epstein.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Yang, Lewis, Epstein, Metz.
Drafting of the manuscript: Yang.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Yang, Lewis, Epstein, Metz.
Statistical analysis: Yang.
Obtained funding: Yang.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Yang.
Study supervision: Yang, Lewis, Epstein, Metz.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Yang reported serving as a consultant for AstraZeneca and receiving grant support from AstraZeneca, Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, and GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Lewis reported serving as a consultant to Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Berlex, and Merck; receiving research support from GlaxoSmithKline and Takeda; and serving as an expert on behalf of Roche in legal matters. Dr Epstein reported serving as a consultant for Merck, Roche-GlaxoSmithKline, NPS Pharmaceuticals, and Novartis Pharmaceuticals and as a speaker for Roche-GlaxoSmithKline and Merck. Dr Metz reported serving as a consultant and receiving honoraria and/or grant support from AstraZeneca, TAP Pharmaceutical Products, Altana, Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Santarus, and Eisai.
Funding/Support: Dr Yang is supported by a National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Mentored Career Development Award (K08 DK062978), which also funded the access to the data in the General Practice Research Database. This study was supported by the American Gastroenterological Association/GlaxoSmithKline Glaxo Institute for Digestive Health Award.
Role of the Sponsor: None of the funding sources had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We thank the staff from EPIC (London, England) for their assistance in obtaining the full data from the General Practice Research Database. We also thank the staff at the Biostatistical Analytical Center at the University of Pennsylvania for assistance in the extraction and processing of the data in the General Practice Research Database.