Author Contributions: Drs Wright and Stoddard had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Willis, Tennstedt, Marsiske, Ball, Morris, Rebok, Unverzagt, Wright.
Acquisition of data: Willis, Marsiske, Ball, Morris, Rebok, Unverzagt.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Willis, Tennstedt, Marsiske, Ball, Elias, Koepke, Morris, Rebok, Unverzagt, Stoddard, Wright.
Drafting of the manuscript: Willis, Tennstedt, Marsiske, Ball, Elias, Morris, Rebok, Unverzagt.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Willis, Tennstedt, Marsiske, Ball, Koepke, Morris, Rebok, Unverzagt, Stoddard, Wright.
Statistical analysis: Marsiske, Morris, Stoddard, Wright.
Obtained funding: Willis, Tennstedt, Marsiske, Ball, Morris, Rebok, Unverzagt.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Willis, Marsiske, Ball, Elias, Koepke, Morris, Rebok, Unverzagt.
Study supervision: Willis, Tennstedt, Marsiske, Ball, Morris, Rebok, Unverzagt, Wright.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Ball owns stock in Visual Awareness Inc, which owns the patent for the Useful Field of View testing and training software. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: ACTIVE is supported by grants from the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Nursing Research to Hebrew Senior Life (U01 NR04507), Indiana University School of Medicine (U01 NR04508), Johns Hopkins University (U01AG14260), New England Research Institutes (U01 AG14282), Pennsylvania State University (U01 AG14263), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (U01 AG14289), and the University of Florida (U01AG14276).
Role of the Sponsor: Representatives of the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute for Nursing Research were directly involved in the design of the study, interpretation of the data, and preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript. These representatives also monitored the conduct of the study, collection, management, and analysis of the data.
ACTIVE Study Investigators: Richard N. Jones, ScD, Adrienne L. Rosenberg, MS (Hebrew Senior Life); Kathy Johnson, PhD, Daniel F. Rexroth, PsyD, David M. Smith, MD, Elizabeth Way, BA, Fredric D. Wolinsky, PhD (Indiana University School of Medicine); Kay Cresci, PhD, RN, Joseph Gallo, MD, MPH, Laura Talbot, PhD, EdD, RN, CS (Johns Hopkins University); Michael Doherty, MS, Patricia Forde, BS, Yan Xu, MS (New England Research Institutes, data coordinating center); Pamela Davis, MS, Scott Hofer, PhD, K. Warner Schaie, PhD (Pennsylvania State University); Jerri Edwards, PhD, Martha Frankel, Cynthia Owsley, PhD, Dan Roenker, PhD, David Vance, PhD, Virginia Wadley, PhD (University of Alabama at Birmingham); Manfred K. Diehl, PhD, Ann L. Horgas, RN, PhD, FAAN, Peter A. Lichtenberg, PhD, ABPP (University of Florida/Wayne State University).
Acknowledgment: We thank Robin Barr, PhD, of the National Institute on Aging for his authorship of the request for applications and his continuing support and helpful comments throughout the conduct of the project. Dr Barr was not compensated for this assistance.