Author Contributions: Dr Hauptman had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Hauptman, Schnitzler, Burroughs.
Acquisition of data: Hauptman, Schnitzler.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Hauptman, Schnitzler, Swindle, Burroughs.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hauptman.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Hauptman, Schnitzler, Swindle, Burroughs.
Statistical analysis: Hauptman, Schnitzler, Swindle, Burroughs.
Obtained funding: Hauptman.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Burroughs.
Study supervision: Schnitzler, Burroughs.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Hauptman reports that in the area of decompensated heart failure he has received honoraria as a member of the speakers bureau from Scios and Johnson & Johnson before September 2005 and grant support from Abbott Laboratories. He currently reports that he receives or will receive grant support and consultancy fees from Orqis Medical Corp, Otsuka Maryland Research Institute Inc, and NovaCardia Inc. In the area of chronic heart failure, Dr Hauptman reports that he has served as an investigator, consultant, and speaker for GlaxoSmithKline and has been on the speaker’s bureau for AstraZeneca and King Pharmaceuticals. No other authors reported relevant financial disclosures.
Funding/Support: This work was funded in part by National Institutes of Health grant RO1 AG021515 (Dr Hauptman).
Role of the Data Source: Premier Healthcare Informatics served as the supplier and vendor of the database. The authors purchased this database using funds from the NIH grant. The company had no role whatsoever in the analysis of the data and no one at the company contributed to the drafting of the manuscript. One computer programmer helped clarify questions raised during the analysis of the database and several definitions in the data dictionary. This was the extent of the company's involvement in this study.