Author Contributions: Dr Parikh and Dr Coca had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Coca, Krumholz, Parikh.
Acquisition of data: Coca, Parikh.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Coca, Krumholz, Garg, Parikh.
Drafting of the manuscript: Coca, Parikh.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Coca, Krumholz, Garg, Parikh.
Statistical analysis: Coca, Parikh.
Obtained funding: Parikh.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Parikh.
Study supervision: Garg, Parikh.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Krumholz is on the advisory board for Amgen, Alere, and United Health Care and has contracts from the American College of Cardiology and the Colorado Foundation for Medical Care.
Funding/Support: Dr Parikh is supported by career development award K23-DK064689 from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Dr Garg is supported by a Clinician Scientist Award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Dr Krumholz has received grants from the National Institutes of Health, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and Fanny Ripple Foundation.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We thank all of the authors of included studies who generously confirmed and provided information for this review.