Author Contributions: Dr Davis had full access to all of the published data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Davis, Harrison, Mazmanian, Fordis.
Acquisition of data: Davis, Perrier.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Davis, Mazmanian, Fordis, Harrison, Thorpe.
Drafting of the manuscript: Davis, Fordis, Harrison, Mazmanian.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Davis, Mazmanian, Fordis, Harrison, Thorpe, Perrier.
Statistical analysis: Mazmanian, Fordis, Thorpe.
Obtained funding: Davis, Perrier.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Perrier.
Study supervision: Davis.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Davis was supported in part by the Association of American Medical Colleges’ Petersdorf scholar-in-residence program. Ms Perrier was supported in part by the Research and Development Resource Base in Continuing Medical Education, funded by the Academic Development Fund in Continuing Education of the University of Toronto, which is supported in part by the Alliance for Continuing Medical Education, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.
Role of the Sponsor: No sponsors were involved in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review and approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the support given by the Association of American Medical Colleges’ Resource Center, especially Marian Talifero, in providing complimentary literature searches, and other members of a working group on Continuing Medical Education, including Nancy Davis, PhD. We also are grateful to Kevin Eva, PhD, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario), and Anton Kuzel, MD, MHPE, Virginia Commonwealth University (Richmond), for their comments. None of these individuals received any compensation for their assistance.