Author Contributions: Drs Kearon and Julian had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Kearon, Ginsberg, Julian, Hirsh, Gent.
Acquisition of data: Kearon, Ginsberg, Douketis, Solymoss, Ockelford, Jackson, Turpie.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kearon, Julian, MacKinnon.
Drafting of the manuscript: Kearon, Ginsberg, Hirsh.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Kearon, Ginsberg, Julian, Douketis, Solymoss, Ockelford, Jackson, Turpie, MacKinnon, Hirsh, Gent.
Statistical analysis: Julian.
Obtained funding: Kearon, Ginsberg, Julian, Hirsh, Gent.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Kearon, Julian, MacKinnon, Gent.
Study supervision: Kearon, Julian, MacKinnon, Gent.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Kearon reports that he has served on an advisory board for Boehringer Ingelheim and GlaxoSmithKline. Dr Douketis reports that he has received honoraria for lectures from Pfizer, Leo Pharma, and Sanofi-Aventis and an honorarium from Leo Pharma for development of an educational monograph. Dr Ockelford reports that he has received received support from the pharmaceutical industry, including from Sanofi-Aventis and its predecessor organizations, to attend international congresses. He has been involved as an investigator or contributing investigator in clinical trials sponsored by drug companies including Sanofi-Aventis, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bayer, GlaxoSmithKline, and Wyeth and has attending dinners hosted by local representatives of these organizations. He served briefly on an Australasian Clinical Board to provide feedback on market potential for fondaparinux in Australia. Dr Turpie reports that he serves on advisory committees and has received grants from Sanofi-Aventis, GlaxoSmithKline, Bayer, Portola, Pfizer, and TransTeh Pharma, and is coinvestigator on studies funded by Boehringer Ingelheim. Dr Hirsh reports that he has participated on ad hoc scientific advisory committees for Sanofi, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, Bayer, and Aryx and has been a speaker at meetings sponsored by Aventis and Pfizer. No other disclosures were reported.
FIDO Investigators: T. Schnurr, K. Woods, J. Douketis, M. Crowther, St Joseph's Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (242 patients); D. Donovan, N. Booker, C. Kearon, J. Hirsh, A. Lee, L. Linkins, M. O’Donnell, J. Weitz, Hamilton Health Sciences, Henderson Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (177 patients); B. St. Jacques, S. Finkenbine, S. Solymoss, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal Quebec (90 patients); P. Stevens, D. Magier, J. S. Ginsberg, S. Bates, P. Brill-Edwards, A. Patel, S. Anand, Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster Medical Centre and Chedoke, Hamilton, Ontario (60 patients); M. Zondag, J. Johnson, A. G. G. Turpie, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton General Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario (58 patients); V. Rolfe-Vyson, S. Cotton, S. McKelvie, A. Bennett, P. Ockelford, Auckland Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand (50 patients); D. M. Smith, S. Jackson, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand (30 patients); J. Poulin, C. Demers, CHA Pavilion St-Sacrement, Quebec City, Quebec (1 patient); independent adjudication committee: M. Levine, J. Weitz., J. Ginsberg, J. Hirsh; coordinating and methods center, Henderson Research Centre: B. MacKinnon, D. McCarty, Q. Guo, J. Julian, M. Levine, M. Gent; central laboratory: F. Angeloni, M. Johnston, Hemostasis Reference Laboratory, Henderson Research Centre, Hamilton, Ontario.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario. Drs Kearon and Douketis were supported by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. Dr Ginsberg was supported by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We thank Bridget A. Haupt, PharmD, University of Washington School of Pharmacy and Univerity of Washington Medical Center, Bruce L. Davidson, MD, MPH, Pulmonary-Critical Care Medicine, University of Washington School of Meidicne, and Henry I. Bussey, PharmD, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin and University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, who helped to obtain representative US costs for unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin.