The enormous human tragedy represented by more than 2.4 million deaths and 3.2 million incident human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in sub-Saharan Africa in 20051 highlights the inadequacy of current HIV prevention efforts in Africa. Although considerable expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs is occurring in Africa, prevention efforts have not kept pace. In low-income countries, substantial investment in prevention may be cost-effective, since future care and treatment costs will be averted. New approaches and new resources might reinvigorate underfinanced HIV prevention efforts and avoid a widening gap between the numbers of individuals needing and receiving ART.
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