Chronic liver disease results in more than 1 million physician visits and more than 300 000 hospitalizations per year in the United States. More than 27 000 patients annually progress to end-stage liver disease (ESLD), liver failure, or death. Patients with ESLD experience such complications as encephalopathy, malnutrition, muscle wasting, ascites, esophagogastric variceal hemorrhage, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, fatigue, and depression. Despite significant improvements in palliation, patients' quality of life diminishes and their disease will often inexorably progress. Liver transplantation, a valid treatment option, increases life and reduces many symptoms. With the current shortage of organs, up to 10% to 15% of these patients die without receiving an organ. Many patients also are not candidates for transplantation due to comorbid illness. In addition, some patients receive a transplant but succumb to complications of the transplant itself. Such patients and families face the conundrum of a potentially treatable yet often fatal illness. Through the case of a 55-year-old woman with a life-long history of hepatitis B virus infection who is awaiting transplant, we discuss the transplant eligibility process and the struggle with maintaining hope for a cure in the face a life-threatening illness. In all of these circumstances, the health care team must combine elements of palliative care with life-sustaining therapy to maximize the patient's quality and quantity of life.
Register and get free email Table of Contents alerts, saved searches, PowerPoint downloads, CME quizzes, and more
Subscribe for full-text access to content from 1998 forward and a host of useful features
Activate your current subscription (AMA members and current subscribers)
Purchase Online Access to this article for 24 hours
The formula for the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is MELD = 0.957 × Loge (creatinine mg/dL) + 0.378 × Loge (bilirubin mg/dL) + 1.120 × Loge (international normalized ratio) + 0.643. The final score should be multiplied by 10 and rounded to the nearest whole number. For laboratory values that are lower than 1.0, set to 1.0 for purposes of calculation of the MELD score. The maximum serum creatinine level considered is 4.0 mg/dL (353.6 μmol/L). If the patient has had dialysis twice within a week before calculation of the MELD score, the score should be calculated with a serum creatinine value of 4.0 mg/dL (353.6 μmol/L) no matter what the actual serum creatinine level is.
Country-Specific Mortality and Growth Failure in Infancy and Yound Children and
Association With Material Stature
Use interactive graphics and maps to view and sort country-specific infant and early
dhildhood mortality and growth failure data and their association with maternal
Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. It will be reviewed by JAMA editors. You will be notified when your comment has been published. Comments should not exceed 500 words of text and 10 references.
Do not submit personal medical questions or information that could identify a specific patient, questions about a particular case, or general inquiries to an author. Only content that has not been published, posted, or submitted elsewhere should be submitted. By submitting this Comment, you and any coauthors transfer copyright to the journal if your Comment is posted.
* = Required Field
Disclosure of Any Conflicts of Interest*
Indicate all relevant conflicts of interest of each author below, including all relevant financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speakers’ bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued. If all authors have none, check "No potential conflicts or relevant financial interests" in the box below. Please also indicate any funding received in support of this work. The information will be posted with your response.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 20
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
and access these and other features:
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.