The efficacies of medication and behavioral therapies, alone or in combination, for treating alcohol dependence were assessed in the multicenter randomized Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions (COMBINE) study, in which study participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 9 treatment groups. Eight of the groups included medical management plus naltrexone or acamprosate, both medications, or placebos, for 16 weeks, and with or without a combined behavioral intervention (CBI). A ninth group received CBI alone. Anton and colleaguesArticle writing for the COMBINE study investigators report that patients in all groups had an increased number of days of abstinence. However, patients receiving naltrexone, CBI, or both along with medical management had more days of abstinence and fewer heavy drinking days than patients in other treatment groups. Acamprosate did not appear to be efficacious in this study. In an editorial, KranzlerArticle discusses the treatment of alcohol dependence.