Author Contributions: Dr DeRouen had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: DeRouen, Martin, Leroux, Townes, Woods, Leitão, Bernardo.
Acquisition of data: DeRouen, Martin, Townes, Woods, Leitão, Castro-Caldas, Luis, Bernardo, Rosenbaum, Martins.
Analysis and interpretation of data: DeRouen, Martin, Leroux, Woods.
Drafting of the manuscript: DeRouen, Martin, Woods, Martins.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: DeRouen, Martin, Leroux, Townes, Woods, Leitão, Castro-Caldas, Luis, Bernardo, Rosenbaum, Martins.
Statistical analysis: DeRouen, Martin, Leroux, Woods.
Obtained funding: DeRouen, Martin, Woods.
Administrative, technical, or material support: DeRouen, Martin, Townes, Woods, Leitão, Luis, Bernardo.
Study supervision: DeRouen, Martin, Townes, Woods, Castro-Caldas, Rosenbaum, Martins.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Leitão reports being principal investigator for a clinical research project at the Biomaterials Laboratory of the University of Lisbon, of which he is the director, supported by the Ivoclar Vivadent Company to test a novel indirect veneer material. Ivoclar Vivadent manufactures both composite resins and dental amalgams, but none of the products used in that investigation are discussed in this article. Dr Leitão reports not personally receiving any direct compensation from this contract between Ivoclar Vivadent and the University of Lisbon. Dr Bernardo reports receiving financial support from Dentsply DeTry Company, a manufacturer of dental instruments and amalgam, to travel to the University of Washington, Seattle, to participate in professional development in research methods. No other authors reported financial disclosures.
Funding/Support: This work was funded by Cooperative Agreement U01 DE11894 from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) of the National Institutes of Health.
Role of the Sponsor: The U01 is an assistance funding mechanism in which federal officials play a facilitative role in the conduct of the trial, but scientific decision making is the responsibility of the principal investigator. The NIDCR had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We wish to acknowledge the many contributions by others to various aspects of this study. Key study personnel who received financial support for their work include: Lurdes Vaz, RDH, Helena Amaral, BS, Goretty Ribeiro, MS, Pedro Rodrigues, MS, Susana Rodrigues, BS, Helena Nazareth, BS, Isabel Morgado, BS, Patricia Santos (dental assistant), Teresa Guerreiro (dental assistant), Victoria Lopes, BS, Mamede Carvalho, MD, PhD, Jaime Portugal, DDS, Margarida Patrocinio, DDS, from the University of Lisbon; and Lynne Simmonds, MS, John Kushleika, MS, Tessa Rue, MS, Ying Huang, MS, Tonya Benton, MS, from the University of Washington. We also acknowledge the oversight provided by the independent data and safety monitoring board, and the extraordinary cooperation of the students, teachers, and administrators of the Casa Pia de Lisboa school system.