Author Contributions: Drs Dominici, Peng, and McDermott and Mr Pham had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Dominici, Peng, Zeger, Samet.
Acquisition of data: Dominici, McDermott.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Dominici, Peng, Bell, Pham, McDermott, Zeger.
Drafting of the manuscript: Dominici, Peng, Pham, Samet.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Dominici, Peng, Bell, McDermott, Zeger, Samet.
Statistical analysis: Dominici, Peng, Bell, Pham, McDermott, Zeger.
Obtained funding: Dominici, Bell, Samet.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Dominici.
Study supervision: Dominici.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Funding for Drs Dominici, McDermott, Zeger, and Samet was provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency (RD-83241701). Funding for Drs Dominici, Peng, and Zeger and Mr Pham was also provided by the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (ES012054-03) and by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences' Center in Urban Environmental Health (P30 ES 03819). Funding for Dr Bell was provided by the Health Effects Institute, an organization jointly funded by the Environmental Protection Agency and automotive manufacturers through the Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award (4720-RFA04-2/04-16).
Role of the Sponsor: The funding agencies/sponsors listed above had no involvement in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Disclaimer: The research described in this article was funded wholly or in part by the US Environmental Protection Agency through a grant to Johns Hopkins University but it has not been subjected to the Environmental Protection Agency's required peer and policy review and therefore does not necessarily reflect the views of the Environmental Protection Agency and no official endorsement should be inferred. The contents of this article do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Health Effects Institute.
Acknowledgment: We thank Charlotte Gerczak, MLA, for her editorial input and Keita Ebisu, MS, for his aid in collecting the particulate matter data. Neither Ms Gerczak nor Mr Ebisu received any financial compensation for their work.