Author Contributions: Dr Lauer had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Shishehbor, Litaker, Lauer.
Acquisition of data: Shishehbor, Pothier, Lauer.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Shishehbor, Litaker, Lauer.
Drafting of the manuscript: Shishehbor, Litaker, Pothier, Lauer.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Shishehbor, Litaker, Pothier, Lauer.
Statistical analysis: Shishehbor, Litaker, Lauer.
Obtaining funding: Shishehbor, Lauer.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Shishehbor, Pothier, Lauer.
Study supervision: Lauer.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Supported by National Institutes of Health grants R01 HL-66004-2, R01 HL-072771-02, and P50 HL-77107-1 (Dr Lauer); Dr Shishehbor is supported in part by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and Multidisciplinary Clinical Research Career Development Programs grant K12 HD049091; Dr Litaker is supported by a career development award from the Veterans Administration Health Services Research and Development Service RCD-03028-1.
Role of the Sponsor: Neither the National Institutes of Health nor the Veterans Administration had any direct involvement in the design and execution of the study, the analysis of the data, the preparation and revision of the manuscript, or the decision to submit for publication.
Disclaimer: Dr Lauer, a JAMA contributing editor, was not involved in the editorial review or decision to publish this article.
Acknowledgment: We are grateful to David Goff, MD, PhD (co-director of the Center for Health Care Research and Quality and a professor of public health sciences and internal medicine at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine), for his thorough and helpful criticisms of the manuscript.