Author Contributions: Dr Prentice had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Prentice, Kuller, Ockene, Margolis, Manson, Robbins, Rossouw, Van Horn, Wactawski-Wende, Wallace, Anderson, Black, Ford, Hays, Heber, Lasser, Henderson.
Acquisition of data: Prentice, Caan, Chlebowski, Patterson, Kuller, Ockene, Margolis, Limacher, Manson, Parker, Paskett, Phillips, Robbins, Sarto, Shikany, Stefanick, Thomson, Van Horn, Wactawski-Wende, Wallace, Wassertheil-Smoller, Whitlock, Yano, Adams-Campbell, Assaf, Beresford, Black, Brunner, Brzyski, Gass, Hays, Heber, Heiss, Hendrix, Hsia, Hubbell, Jackson, Johnson, Kotchen, LaCroix, Lane, Langer, Lasser, Henderson.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Prentice, Caan, Chlebowski, Patterson, Kuller, Margolis, Limacher, Manson, Rossouw, Stefanick, Thomson, Van Horn, Vitolins, Wactawski-Wende, Wassertheil-Smoller, Anderson, Black, Heber, Jackson, LaCroix.
Drafting of the manuscript: Prentice, Caan, Chlebowski, Patterson, Kuller, Ockene, Thomson, Van Horn, Vitolins, Adams-Campbell, Heber.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Prentice, Caan, Chlebowski, Patterson, Ockene, Margolis, Limacher, Manson, Parker, Paskett, Phillips, Robbins, Rossouw, Sarto, Shikany, Stefanick, Van Horn, Wactawski-Wende, Wallace, Wassertheil-Smoller, Whitlock, Yano, Anderson, Assaf, Beresford, Black, Brunner, Brzyski, Ford, Gass, Hays, Heber, Heiss, Hendrix, Hsia, Hubbell, Jackson, Johnson, Kotchen, LaCroix, Lane, Langer, Lasser, Henderson.
Statistical analysis: Prentice, Caan, Patterson, Kuller, Van Horn, Anderson, Heber.
Obtained funding: Prentice, Kuller, Ockene, Manson, Paskett, Robbins, Rossouw, Stefanick, Van Horn, Wactawski-Wende, Wallace, Wassertheil-Smoller, Adams-Campbell, Assaf, Beresford, Black, Brunner, Heber, Heiss, Hendrix, Hubbell, Lane, Langer, Henderson.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Prentice, Kuller, Ockene, Margolis, Limacher, Manson, Paskett, Phillips, Robbins, Rossouw, Shikany, Stefanick, Van Horn, Wactawski-Wende, Wallace, Whitlock, Yano, Anderson, Assaf, Beresford, Brunner, Brzyski, Ford, Hays, Heber, Heiss, Hendrix, Hsia, Hubbell, Jackson, Johnson, Kotchen, Lane, Langer, Lasser, Henderson.
Study supervision: Prentice, Chlebowski, Patterson, Kuller, Ockene, Limacher, Parker, Robbins, Stefanick, Thomson, Van Horn, Wallace, Wassertheil-Smoller, Anderson, Assaf, Black, Brunner, Hays, Heber, Heiss, Hendrix, Hubbell, Johnson.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Assaf is an employee of Pfizer. Dr Black has received research grants from Pfizer and AstraZeneca; served on the speaker's bureau for Pfizer, Novartis, Sanofi-Aventis, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Searle, Pharmacia, and Boehringer; and served as a consultant to or on an advisory board for Myogen, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, Mylan-Bertek, Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Sanofi-Aventis. No other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: The Women's Health Initiative program was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organization had representation on the steering committee, which governed the design and conduct of the study, the interpretation of the data, and the preparation and approval of manuscripts. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Program Office reviewed the manuscript prior to publication.
WHI Investigators by Clinical Center
Program Office: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Md (Barbara Alving, Jacques Rossouw, Linda Pottern, Shari Ludlam, Joan McGowan, Nancy Geller, Leslie Ford).
Clinical Coordinating Centers: Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Wash (Ross Prentice, Garnet Anderson, Andrea LaCroix, Ruth Patterson, Anne McTiernan, Barbara Cochrane, Julie Hunt, Lesley Tinker, Charles Kooperberg, Martin McIntosh, C. Y. Wang, Chu Chen, Deborah Bowen, Alan Kristal, Janet Stanford, Nicole Urban, Noel Weiss, Emily White); Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (Sally Shumaker, Ronald Prineas, Michelle Naughton); Medical Research Laboratories, Highland Heights, Ky (Evan Stein, Peter Laskarzewski); San Francisco Coordinating Center, San Francisco, Calif (Steven R. Cummings, Michael Nevitt, Lisa Palermo); University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (Lisa Harnack); Fisher BioServices, Rockville, Md (Frank Cammarata, Steve Lindenfelser); University of Washington, Seattle (Bruce Psaty, Susan Heckbert).
Clinical Centers: Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, William Frishman, Judith Wylie-Rosett, David Barad, Ruth Freeman); Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex (Jennifer Hays, Ronald Young, Jill Anderson, Sandy Lithgow, Paul Bray); Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (JoAnn Manson, J. Michael Gaziano, Claudia Chae, Kathryn Rexrode, Caren Solomon); Brown University, Providence, RI (Annlouise R. Assaf, Carol Wheeler, Charles Eaton, Michelle Cyr); Emory University, Atlanta, Ga (Lawrence Phillips, Margaret Pedersen, Ora Strickland, Margaret Huber, Vivian Porter); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Wash (Shirley A. A. Beresford, Vicky M. Taylor, Nancy F. Woods, Maureen Henderson, Robyn Andersen); George Washington University, Washington, DC (Judith Hsia, Nancy Gaba, Joao Ascensao); Harbor-UCLA Research and Education Institute, Torrance, Calif (Rowan Chlebowski, Robert Detrano, Anita Nelson, Michele Geller); Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, Ore (Evelyn Whitlock, Patricia Elmer, Victor Stevens, Njeri Karanja); Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, Calif (Bette Caan, Stephen Sidney, Geri Bailey Jane Hirata); Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (Jane Morley Kotchen, Vanessa Barnabei, Theodore A. Kotchen, Mary Ann C. Gilligan, Joan Neuner); MedStar Research Institute and Howard University, Washington, DC (Barbara V. Howard, Lucile Adams-Campbell, Lawrence Lessin, Monique Rainford, Gabriel Uwaifo); Northwestern University, Chicago/Evanston, Ill (Linda Van Horn, Philip Greenland, Janardan Khandekar, Kiang Liu, Carol Rosenberg); Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Ill (Henry Black, Lynda Powell, Ellen Mason; Martha Gulati); Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford, Calif (Marcia L. Stefanick, Mark A. Hlatky, Bertha Chen, Randall S. Stafford, Sally Mackey); State University of New York, Stony Brook (Dorothy Lane, Iris Granek, William Lawson, Gabriel San Roman, Catherine Messina); Ohio State University, Columbus (Rebecca Jackson, Randall Harris, Electra Paskett, W. Jerry Mysiw, Michael Blumenfeld); University of Alabama, Birmingham (Cora E. Lewis, Albert Oberman, James M. Shikany, Monika Safford, Mona Fouad); University of Arizona, Tucson/Phoenix (Tamsen Bassford, Cyndi Thomson, Marcia Ko, Ana Maria Lopez, Cheryl Ritenbaugh); State University of New York, Buffalo (Jean Wactawski-Wende, Maurizio Trevisan, Ellen Smit, Susan Graham, June Chang); University of California at Davis, Sacramento (John Robbins, Shagufta Yasmeen); University of California, Irvine (F. Allan Hubbell, Gail Frank, Nathan Wong, Nancy Greep, Bradley Monk); University of California, Los Angeles (Howard Judd, David Heber, Robert Elashoff); University of California at San Diego, LaJolla/Chula Vista (Robert D. Langer, Michael H. Criqui, Gregory T. Talavera, Cedric F. Garland, Matthew A. Allison); University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (Margery Gass, Suzanne Wernke); University of Florida, Gainesville/Jacksonville (Marian Limacher, Michael Perri, Andrew Kaunitz, R. Stan Williams, Yvonne Brinson); University of Hawaii, Honolulu (J. David Curb, Helen Petrovitch, Beatriz Rodriguez, Kamal Masaki, Santosh Sharma); University of Iowa, Iowa City/Davenport (Robert Wallace, James Torner, Susan Johnson, Linda Snetselaar, Jennifer Robinson); University of Massachusetts/Fallon Clinic, Worcester (Judith Ockene, Milagros Rosal, Ira Ockene, Robert Yood, Patricia Aronson); University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark (Norman Lasser, Baljinder Singh, Vera Lasser, John Kostis, Peter McGovern); University of Miami, Miami, Fla (Mary Jo O’Sullivan, Linda Parker, Timothy DeSantis, Diann Fernandez, Pat Caralis); University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (Karen L. Margolis, Richard H. Grimm, Mary F. Perron, Cynthia Bjerk, Sarah Kempainen); University of Nevada, Reno (Robert Brunner, William Graettinger, Vicki Oujevolk, Michael Bloch); University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (Gerardo Heiss, Pamela Haines, David Ontjes, Carla Sueta, Ellen Wells); University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa (Lewis Kuller, Jane Cauley, N. Carole Milas); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis (Karen C. Johnson, Suzanne Satterfield, Raymond W. Ke, Stephanie Connelly, Fran Tylavsky); University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (Robert Brzyski, Robert Schenken, Jose Trabal, Mercedes Rodriguez-Sifuentes, Charles Mouton); University of Wisconsin, Madison (Gloria E. Sarto, Douglas Laube, Patrick McBride, Julie Mares-Perlman, Barbara Loevinger); Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (Denise Bonds, Greg Burke, Robin Crouse, Mara Vitolins, Scott Washburn); Wayne State University School of Medicine and Hutzel Hospital, Detroit, Mich (Susan Hendrix, Michael Simon, Gene McNeeley).
Former WHI Principal Investigators and Project Officers: John Foreyt (Baylor College of Medicine); Dallas Hall, Sally McNagny, Nelson Watts (Emory University); Valery Miller (George Washington University); Robert Hiatt (Kaiser Permanente); Barbara Valanis (Kaiser Permanente); Carolyn Clifford† (National Cancer Institute); Thomas Moon (University of Arizona); Frank Meyskens, Jr (University of California); James Liu (University of Cincinnati); Marianna Baum (University of Miami); Sandra Daugherty† (University of Nevada); David Sheps, Barbara Hulka (University of North Carolina); William Applegate (University of Tennessee); Catherine Allen† (University of Wisconsin).
Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the dedicated efforts of the dietary modification trial participants and that of project staff, particularly nutritionists involved in delivering the dietary modification intervention and Aaron Aragaki, MS, of the clinical coordinating center of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, who contributed much to the analytical aspects of this article.