Author Contributions: Dr Nadkarni had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Nadkarni, Larkin, Peberdy, Kaye, Ornato, Berg.
Acquisition of data: Larkin, Peberdy, Carey, Mancini, Truitt, Potts, Berg.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Nadkarni, Larkin, Carey, Nichol, Berg.
Drafting of the manuscript: Nadkarni, Larkin, Berg.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Nadkarni, Larkin, Peberdy, Carey, Kaye, Mancini, Nichol, Truitt, Potts, Ornato, Berg.
Statistical analysis: Nadkarni, Larkin, Carey, Berg.
Obtained funding: Potts.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Peberdy, Carey, Mancini, Truitt, Berg.
Study supervision: Nadkarni, Nichol, Ornato, Berg.
Financial Disclosures: Mr Carey performs data management for Digital Innovation Inc. Ms Truitt is a paid clinical consultant for National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (NRCPR), but received no payment for work associated with this article. Dr Potts is the Director of Science for the American Heart Association (AHA) Emergency Cardiovascular Care Programs (a sponsor of NRCPR). No other authors reported financial disclosures.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the Endowed Chair of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and the Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee of the AHA.
Role of the Sponsors: The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the AHA did not influence the design, conduct, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data, or the preparation of the manuscript. The Scientific Advisory Board of the AHA and Endowed Chair of Critical Care Medicine provided review and approval of the manuscript, and the Executive Database Steering Committee of the AHA provided additional peer review of the manuscript.
Distribution of Participating Hospitals in the NRCPR: Alaska (n = 2), Alabama (n = 2), Arkansas (n = 6), Arizona (n = 6), California (n = 27), Colorado (n = 5), Connecticut (n = 3), Delaware (n = 3), Florida (n = 25), Georgia (n = 7), Hawaii (n = 1), Iowa (n = 5), Idaho (n = 1), Illinois (n = 18), Indiana (n = 19), Kansas (n = 6), Kentucky (n = 7), Louisiana (n = 14), Massachusetts (n = 3), Maryland (n = 5), Michigan (n = 3), Minnesota (n = 3), Missouri (n = 4), Mississippi (n = 5), Montana (n = 5), North Carolina (n = 11), North Dakota (n = 2), Nebraska (n = 4), New Hampshire (n = 4), New Jersey (n = 5), New Mexico (n = 1), New York (n = 10), Ohio (n = 10), Oklahoma (n = 5), Oregon (n = 7), Pennsylvania (n = 13), South Carolina (n = 6), South Dakota (n = 2), Tennessee (n = 4), Texas (n = 13), Utah (n = 2), Virginia (n = 15), Washington (n = 7), Wisconsin (n = 9), West Virginia (n = 6), Wyoming (n = 2), District of Columbia (n = 1), and Ontario, Canada (n = 2).
Acknowledgment: We thank the AHA, Brian Eigel, PhD, Yuling Hong, PhD, both from the AHA, and Mark A. Helfaer, MD, University of Pennsylvania and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, for scientific review of the manuscript; Michael C. Bell, MBA, from the AHA, for unwavering support of the NRCPR; innumerable staff and data abstractors from NRCPR hospitals for their time and effort; and Terrilynn Honesty, for her secretarial support. No compensation was received from a funding sponsor for any contributions made by these individuals.