Study concept and design: Patel, Volpp, Small, Rosenbaum, Bellini, Silber.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Patel, Volpp, Small, Hill, Even-Shoshan, Ross, Zhu, Silber.
Drafting of the manuscript: Patel, Rosenbaum, Bellini, Silber.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Patel, Volpp, Small, Hill, Even-Shoshan, Ross, Bellini, Zhu, Silber.
Statistical analysis: Patel, Small, Hill, Ross, Bellini, Zhu, Silber.
Obtained funding: Volpp, Even-Shoshan, Bellini, Silber.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Patel, Volpp, Even-Shoshan, Bellini, Silber.
Study supervision: Patel, Volpp, Even-Shoshan, Bellini, Silber.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Funding/Support: This project was funded in part through National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute grant R01-HL094593. Dr Patel was supported by the Department of Veteran Affairs and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The study sponsors had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.