Author Contributions: Jessup had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Jessup, Greene.
Acquisition of data: Jessup, Stewart.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Jessup, Stewart, Greene, Minsky.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jessup, Stewart, Greene, Minsky.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jessup, Stewart, Greene, Minsky.
Statistical analysis: Jessup, Stewart.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Stewart.
Study supervision: Jessup, Minsky.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was supported in part by the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society.
Role of the Sponsor: Mr Stewart is an employee of the American College of Surgeons and assisted with the collection, management, analysis, and initial interpretation of the data. In addition, the medical director of the cancer programs of the American College of Surgeons reviewed and approved the manuscript for submission.
Acknowledgment: We are grateful for the use of the National Cancer Data Base.