Author Contributions: Dr Belda had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Belda, Garcia de
la Asuncion, Sessler.
Acquisition of data: Belda, Aguilera, Garcia
de la Asuncion, Alberti, Vicente, Ferrandiz, Rodriguez, Company, Aguilar,
Analysis and interpretation of data: Belda,
Aguilera, Vicente, Rodriguez, Company, Sessler, Orti.
Drafting of the manuscript: Belda, Aguilera,
Garcia de la Asuncion, Vicente, Ferrandiz, Rodriguez, Sessler, Aguilar, Botello,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Belda, Alberti, Sessler.
Statistical analysis: Belda, Alberti, Vicente,
Company, Sessler, Orti.
Obtained funding: Belda, Aguilera, Garcia de
la Asuncion, Ferrandiz, Company.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Belda, Garcia de la Asuncion, Alberti, Ferrandiz, Rodriguez, Aguilar.
Study supervision: Belda, Garcia de la Asuncion,
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
The Spanish Reduccion de la Tasa de Infeccion Quirurgica
Group:Hospital Clínico, Valencia:
F. Javier Belda, MD, PhD, José García de la Asunción,
MD, PhD, José V. Juste, MD, Antonio Guillén, MD, Gerardo Aguilar,
MD, PhD, Marina Soro, MD, PhD, Rafael Ortí, PhD, Eduardo García-Granero,
MD, PhD; Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid: Javier
Alberti, MD, Guadalupe Blanc, MD, Rosario Roser, MD; Hospital
Severo Ochoa, Leganés: Patricia Lloreda, MD, Enrique Alonso,
MD, María S. Asuero, MD, PhD; Hospital Virgen de
la Salud, Toledo: Raquel Casas, MD, Manuela Carrero, MD, Alberto Cortés,
MD; Hospital La Fe, Valencia: Rosario Vicente, MD,
Vicente Ramos, MD, Miguel Sánchez, MD, Cristina Sánchez, MD,
María D. Sánchez, MD; Hospital Dr. Peset,
Valencia: Manuel Barberá, MD, PhD, Lucía Ferrándiz,
MD, Rocío Armero, MD; Hospital Virgen de la Macarena,
Sevilla: Rafael Rodríguez, MD, José L. Casielles, MD,
Diego Toro, MD, Antonio Gutiérrez, MD, Juan C. Herreras, MD; Hospital Clínico, Zaragoza: José M. Mateo,
MD, Pilar Lirola, MD, Javier González, MD, Rosa Aparicio, MD; Hospital Clínico, Málaga: Aurelio Gómez,
MD, Antonio García, MD, Ana Navajas, MD, Manuel Rubio, MD, José
Sarmiento, MD; Hospital Galdakao, Bizkaia: Luciano
Aguilera, MD, PhD, Carmelo Intxaurraga, MD, Sarkundde Telletxea, MD, José
R. Onandía, MD, Aitor Landaluce, MD; Hospital General,
Alicante: Roque Company, PhD, Joaquín Mateu, MD, Javier Rubio,
MD; Hospital Carlos Haya, Málaga: Sigfredo
Rodríguez, MD, Ana Medina, MD, Esperanza Cruz, MD; Hospital Juan Canalejo, A Coruña: César Bonome, MD, PhD,
Felisa Álvarez-Refojo, MD; Hospital Río Hortega,
Valladolid: Eugenio Ruíz, MD, Ana Alonso, MD, César Aldecoa,
MD, Jesús Rico, MD, José I. Gómez-Herreras, MD, PhD.
Funding/Support: This study was largely performed
with institutional support from the participating centers. There was complementary
funding from Air-Liquide Medicinal, Spain, and Air-Liquide Santé, France;
Dr Sessler’s effort was supported by grant GM 061655 from the National
Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; the Gheens Foundation, Louisville, Ky;
and the Joseph Drown Foundation, Los Angeles, Calif.
Role of the Sponsors: Air-Liquide Medicinal
and Air-Liquide Santé participated in the study design and the logistics
of the trial, but agreed a priori that the investigators, regardless of the
results, would publish the findings. The sponsors had no role in data interpretation
or manuscript preparation, and the steering committee statistician independently
validated the outcome. All decisions related to publication, including data
interpretation, were entirely controlled by the data and safety monitoring
board, Dr Belda, and co-author members of the Spanish Reduccion de la Tasa
de Infeccion Quirurgica Group. None of the authors has a personal financial
interest in this research.
Acknowledgment: We thank Gorka Solaun, BS,
medical student, University of Valencia, Spain, for his assistance in coordinating
patient recruitment, and Nancy Alsip, PhD, medical editor, University of Louisville,
Kentucky, for her paid editorial contributions. Mr Solaun was paid by the
University of Valencia for his contribution to our study.