Author Contributions: Drs Ley and Rosenberg
had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for
the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Ley, Rosenberg.
Acquisition of data: Ley, Rosenberg.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Ley, Rosenberg.
Drafting of the manuscript: Ley, Rosenberg.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Ley, Rosenberg.
Statistical analysis: Ley.
Obtained funding: Ley.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Study supervision: Ley, Rosenberg.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The Alan and Edith Wolff Chair
provided support for Dr Ley.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding source had
no role in the design and conduct of the study, in the collection, analysis,
and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval
of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We are grateful to Alfred Johnson,
Office of Loan Repayment and Scholarship, NIH, Robert Moore, and the staff
of the Division of Information Services Office of Extramural Research, NIH,
Derek Smart at the AMA, and Le’Etta Robinson and Gwen Garrison at the
AAMC for fulfilling our many requests for data in a timely and professional
manner. We also thank Linda Burnley at Harvard Medical School for providing
data regarding the MD-PhD matriculants. We thank Denise Kampwerth and Jason
Books, Washington University Medical School, for help with data management
and Marcy Hartstein and Andrea Myles at Washington University’s MedPic
for creating the figures. Nancy Reidelberger, Washington University Medical
School, and Patricia Fox, Princeton University, provided expert assistance
with manuscript preparation.