Author Contributions: Dr Asplin had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Dr Rhodes served as the
principal co-investigator throughout the design, implementation, analysis,
and reporting of the study.
Study concept and design: Asplin, Rhodes, Lurie,
Acquisition of data: Asplin, Rhodes.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Asplin,
Rhodes, Levy, Lurie, Crain, Carlin, Kellermann.
Drafting of the manuscript: Asplin, Rhodes,
Criticalrevision of the
manuscript for important intellectual content: Asplin, Rhodes, Levy,
Lurie, Crain, Carlin, Kellermann.
Statistical analysis: Asplin, Rhodes, Levy,
Lurie, Crain, Carlin.
Obtained funding: Asplin, Rhodes, Lurie.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Asplin, Rhodes, Kellermann.
Study supervision: Asplin, Rhodes, Lurie, Kellermann.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
SiteDirectors:Phoenix, Ariz: Brian Tiffany, MD, PhD, Maricopa Medical
Center; Los Angeles: Deirdre Anglin, MD, MPH, Los
Angeles County, University of Southern California Medical Center; Denver, Colo: Debra Houry, MD, MPH, Emory University; Jacksonville: Robert Wears, MD, MS, University of Florida; Atlanta, Ga: Arthur L. Kellermann, MD, MPH, Emory University; Chicago, Ill: Karin V. Rhodes, MD, University of Chicago
Hospitals; Minneapolis/St Paul, Minn: Brent R. Asplin,
MD, MPH, Regions Hospital; New York, NY: Lynne D.
Richardson, MD, Mt Sinai Medical Center; Dallas/Ft Worth: Gregory L. Larkin, MD, MS, MSPH, University of Texas Southwestern
Funding/Support: Project costs were funded
by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Dr Asplin's work was supported by
grant K08-HS13007 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Role of the Sponsors: The project manager from
the Kaiser Family Foundation assisted the investigators with the study methods
and interpretation of the data. The project manager did review the manuscript
prior to publication; however, the study investigators take full responsibility
for the content of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We thank Catherine Hoffman,
ScD, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; Martha Van Haitsma, University of
Chicago Survey Lab; Shannon O’Keefe, University of Vermont Medical School;
Shelly Feaver, Regions Hospital Department of Emergency Medicine; and the
site directors for their dedicated assistance with the study. We also thank
the staff at the University of Chicago Survey Lab for their expertise throughout