Author Contributions: Dr Fletcher had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Fletcher, Underwood, Davis.
Acquisition of data: Fletcher, Underwood, Davis.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Fletcher, Davis, Mangrulkar, McMahon, Saint.
Drafting of the manuscript: Fletcher, Davis, McMahon.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Underwood, Davis, Mangrulkar, McMahon, Saint.
Statistical analysis: Fletcher, Davis.
Obtained funding: Saint.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Davis, McMahon.
Study supervision: Mangrulkar, McMahon.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The University of Michigan’s Patient Safety Enhancement Program supported this project. Dr Saint is supported by a Career Development Award from the Health Services Research & Development Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs and a Patient Safety Developmental Center grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (P20-HS11540). Dr Fletcher was a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar/Veterans Affairs Scholar when some of this work was completed.
Role of the Sponsors: The sponsors had no role in the design or conduct of the study; no involvement in the management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and did not review or approve the manuscript.
Previous Presentations: Part of this work was presented at the national Society of General Internal Medicine meeting in May 2003 in Vancouver, British Columbia, and part at the Society of Hospital Medicine meeting in April 2005 in Chicago, Ill.
Additional Information: The tables in print are abridged. The complete detailed tables are available here.