Author Contributions: Dr Weissman had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Weissman, Betancourt, Campbell, Park, Clarridge, Lee.
Acquisition of data: Weissman, Betancourt, Park, Kim, Clarridge.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Weissman, Betancourt, Park, Kim, Blumenthal, Lee, Maina.
Drafting of the manuscript: Weissman, Betancourt, Park, Blumenthal.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Weissman, Betancourt, Campbell, Park, Kim, Clarridge, Lee, Maina.
Statistical analysis: Park, Kim.
Obtained funding: Weissman, Betancourt, Campbell, Park.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Weissman, Betancourt, Kim, Clarridge, Maina.
Study supervision: Betancourt, Clarridge, Blumenthal.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by grant 20021803 from The California Endowment and grant 20020727 from The Commonwealth Fund.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding organizations had no role in the design and conduct of the study, including data collection and management, analysis, interpretation of the data, and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We gratefully acknowledge Sarah Brotherton and the American Medical Association for help in constructing the sample list of residents. Matthew Jans was most helpful in his role as assistant study director at the Center for Survey Research.