Author Contributions: Dr Annema had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Annema, Versteegh,
Sont, Willems, Rabe.
Acquisition of data: Annema, Versteegh, Veseliç,
Analysis and interpretation of data: Annema,
Versteegh, Veseliç, Mauad, Sont, Rabe.
Drafting of the manuscript: Annema, Versteegh,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Annema, Versteegh, Veseliç, Welker, Sont,
Statistical analysis: Annema, Sont.
Obtained funding: Annema, Rabe.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Annema, Versteegh, Veseliç, Welker, Mauad, Willems, Rabe.
Study supervision: Rabe.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: The research for this article
was supported by a grant from the Leiden University Medical Center. Hitachi
Ultrasound (Reeuwijk, the Netherlands) provided the ultrasound scanner and
echoendoscope on a loan basis.
Role of the Sponsor: The Leiden University
Medical Center had no influence on the design, conduct of the study, or the
IKW Oncology Study Group: E. H. Bel, MD, PhD;
J. J. Brahim, MD; H. Codrington, MD; H. Dik, MD; J. Kersbergen, MD; H. C.
J. van Klink, MD; K. W. Kralingen, MD, PhD; P. Marton, MD; B. Roldaan, MD,
PhD; H. Schreur, MD, PhD; B. Slotema, MD; J. Stolk, MD, PhD; A. Ten Brinke,
MD, PhD; H. P. A. A. van Veen, MD; and T. Wever, MD.
Previous Presentations: Presented in part at
the 97th International Conference of the American Thoracic Society, San Francisco,
Calif, May 22, 2001; 10th World Conference on Lung Cancer, Vancouver, British
Columbia, August 12, 2003; and 100th International Conference of the American
Thoracic Society Conference, Orlando, Fla, May 24, 2004.
Acknowledgment:We thank E. Joekes, MD, and
J. Tjon a Ling, MD (Division of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center),
for scoring computed tomographic scans; D. Grootendorst, PhD, and F. Rosendaal,
PhD (Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center),
for advice on statistical analyses; and A. van der Mey and W. J. Oudshoorn
(Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center) for computing
and logistical assistance. Drs Joekes and Tjon a Ling received a fee of €900
for their contributions. No compensation was given to Drs Grootendorst and
Rosendaal or to van der Mey and W. J. Oudshoorn.