Author Contributions: Dr Collins had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Collins, Kleber,
Acquisition of data: Collins, Kleber, Whittington,
Analysis and interpretation of data: Collins,
Drafting of the manuscript: Collins, Kleber,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Collins, Kleber, Whittington.
Obtained funding: Collins, Kleber.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Collins, Kleber, Whittington, Heitler.
Study supervision: Collins, Kleber, Whittington.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Kleber has served
as consultant for and has received an unrestricted grant from Reckitt Benckiser,
the manufacturer of buprenorphine, for issues unrelated to this article. No
other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by
grants DA-12644, DA-00317, and DA-14284 from the National Institute on Drug
Abuse (NIDA) and grant MOI-RR-00645 from the National Institutes of Health
(NIH). The present study was funded entirely by NIH grants.
Role of the Sponsor: The study was reviewed
by the Investigational Review Group at the National Institute on Drug Abuse
when it recommended funding for this project. Beyond the review process, neither
the NIH nor the NIDA had a role in the design, conduct, analysis, or writing
of this study.
Acknowledgment: We wish to thank the following
individuals for their work in support of this research: Marty L. Hill, CRNA,
and Jody Davis, CRNA, Department of Anesthesiology; Edward Nunes, MD, Division
of Substance Abuse, and Dan Bloomfield, MD, Department of Medicine; and Maria
Sullivan, MD, and Jay Mott, MD, Division of Substance Abuse, Department of
Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center; Randi Adelman, RN; Research
Assistants Chaim Kozlovsky and Michael Song; and Fatima Garawi, MA, for statistical