Opioid dependence and its associated morbidity, mortality, and social
costs continue to plague societies around the world. Opioid dependence is
characterized by physical dependence as evidenced by tolerance and withdrawal
and by behavioral problems, including the inability to control opioid use,
opioid use despite adverse consequences, and social dysfunction. The 2003
National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported that 3.7 million Americans
had used heroin at some time in their lives.1 The
Monitoring the Future Survey noted that approximately 1.2% of 10th- and 12th-graders
reported ever using heroin in 2004.2 In addition,
the recent trend of increasing abuse of prescription opioids including oxycodone,
propoxyphene, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, and meperidine has been a major
concern since the late 1990s. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health1 estimated that as of 2003, more than 31.2 million
Americans had used narcotic pain relievers in a “nonmedicinal”
manner sometime in their lives and 11.7 million were “past year”
nonmedicinal users in 2003.1 The Monitoring
the Future Survey indicated that 6.2% of 10th-graders and 9.3% of 12th-graders
used hydrocodone and 3.5% of 10th-graders and 5.0% of 12th-graders used oxycodone
in 2004.2 These statistics and the overall
lack of access to high-quality treatment resources for opioid-dependent individuals3 point directly to the urgent need to develop new treatment
strategies for opioid dependence while expanding access to established treatment
approaches known to be effective.
Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.
Download citation file:
Web of Science® Times Cited: 28
Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.
More Listings atJAMACareerCenter.com >
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a link to reset your password.
Enter your username and email address. We'll send instructions on how to reset your password to the email address we have on record.
Athens and Shibboleth are access management services that provide single sign-on to protected resources. They replace the multiple user names and passwords necessary to access subscription-based content with a single user name and password that can be entered once per session. It operates independently of a user's location or IP address. If your institution uses Athens or Shibboleth authentication, please contact your site administrator to receive your user name and password.