Author Contributions: Drs Burns and Moist had
full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the
integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Burns, Chu, Novick,
Martin, Stitt, Moist.
Acquisition of data: Burns, Chu, Novick, Fox,
Gallo, Heidenheim, Myers, Moist.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Burns,
Chu, Fox, Martin, Stitt, Heidenheim, Moist.
Drafting of the manuscript: Burns, Moist.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Burns, Chu, Novick, Fox, Gallo, Martin, Stitt,
Heidenheim, Myers, Moist.
Statistical analysis: Stitt, Heidenheim.
Obtained funding: Burns, Chu, Novick, Martin,
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Burns, Chu, Novick, Fox, Gallo, Heidenheim, Myers, Moist.
Study supervision: Burns, Novick, Martin, Myers,
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by research
grants obtained from the Lawson Health Research Institute and Physician Services
Incorporated. Dr Burns holds a postdoctoral fellowship from the Canadian Institutes
for Health Research. Dr Chu is the recipient of the William T. MacEachern
Role of the Sponsor: The funding sources had
no influence in study design and conduct; data collection, analysis, and interpretation;
manuscript preparation; or in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Acknowledgment: We are indebted to the pharmacists,
anesthetists, cardiac surgeons, intensivists, and intensive care nursing staff
of both hospitals for their cooperation in this study.