Author Contributions: Dr Casarett had full
access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Casarett, Karlawish,
Acquisition of data: Casarett, Karlawish, Crowley,
Analysis and interpretation of data: Casarett,
Karlawish, Morales, Asch.
Drafting of the manuscript: Casarett.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Casarett, Karlawish, Morales, Crowley, Mirsch,
Statistical analysis: Casarett, Karlawish,
Obtained funding: Casarett.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Study supervision: Casarett, Mirsch.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Dr Casarett is the recipient
of an Advanced Research Career Development Award from the Department of Veterans
Affairs and a Paul Beeson Physician Faculty Scholars Award.
Role of the Sponsors: Neither funding agency
had any role in the design and conduct of the study; in the collection, management,
analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in the preparation, review, or
approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We thank Thomas ten Have, PhD,
for critical review of the manuscript and are grateful for the advice and
assistance of staff at participating nursing homes including Darlene Pidgeon,
CRNP, Ernestine Steiner, CRNP, Patricia Chriss, CRNP, Bette McNee, RN, NHA,
Robin Frankwich, MEd, NHA, Barry Fabius, MD, and Joan Weinryb, MD, and the
residents, families, and physicians who participated.