0
We're unable to sign you in at this time. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
We were able to sign you in, but your subscription(s) could not be found. Please try again in a few minutes.
Retry
There may be a problem with your account. Please contact the AMA Service Center to resolve this issue.
Contact the AMA Service Center:
Telephone: 1 (800) 262-2350 or 1 (312) 670-7827  *   Email: subscriptions@jamanetwork.com
Error Message ......
Original Contribution |

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Clinical Virulence, and the Dominance of the Beijing Strain Family in Russia FREE

Francis Drobniewski, MD, PhD; Yanina Balabanova, MD, PhD; Vladyslav Nikolayevsky, PhD; Micheal Ruddy, MD; Sergey Kuznetzov, MD; Svetlana Zakharova, MD; Alexander Melentyev, MD; Ivan Fedorin, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: HPA Mycobacterium Reference Unit, Department of Microbiology and Infection, Guy’s King’s and St Thomas’ Medical School, (Dulwich), London, England (Drs Drobniewski, Balabanova, Nikolayevsky, and Ruddy); Samara Regional TB Service, Samara Oblast Dispensary, Russia Federation (Drs Balabanova and Fedorin); Samara Regional Ministry of Health, Russia Federation (Dr Kuznetzov); Samara City TB Service, Russia Federation (Dr Zakharova); Samara Prison TB Service, Samara, Russia Federation (Dr Melentyev).

More Author Information
JAMA. 2005;293(22):2726-2731. doi:10.1001/jama.293.22.2726.
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Context Tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is a serious public health problem in Russia.

Objective To address the extent of “Beijing strain” transmission in the prison/civil sectors and the association of drug resistance, clinical, and social factors with the Beijing genotype.

Design and Setting Cross-sectional population-based molecular epidemiological study of all civilian and penitentiary tuberculosis facilities in the Samara region, Russia.

Patients Consecutively recruited patients with bacteriologically proven tuberculosis (n = 880).

Main Outcome Measure Proportion of Beijing strains and association with drug resistance, human immunodeficiency virus infection, imprisonment, radiological, clinical, and other social factors.

Results Beijing-family strains (identified by spoligotyping and composed of 2 main types by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit analysis) were predominant: 586/880 (66.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 63.4%-69.7%) with a significantly higher prevalence in the prison population (rate ratio [RR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.5) and those aged younger than 35 years (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.3). Comparable proportions were co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (≈10%), concurrent hepatitis B and C (21.6%), drank alcohol (≈90%), smoked (≈90%), and had a similar sexual history. Drug resistance was nearly 2-fold higher in patients infected with Beijing strains compared with non-Beijing strains: multidrug resistance (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.9-3.0), for isoniazid (RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.1), for rifampicin (RR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-2.7), for streptomycin (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.5-2.3), and for ethambutol (RR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.2). Univariate analysis demonstrated that male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9), advanced radiological abnormalities (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.3-8.4), homelessness (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.3), and previous imprisonment (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.5-2.7) were strongly associated with Beijing-strain family disease. Multivariate analysis supported previous imprisonment to be a risk factor (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3) and night sweats to be less associated (OR 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-1.0) with Beijing-strain disease.

Conclusions Drug resistance and previous imprisonment but not human immunodeficiency virus co-infection were significantly associated with Beijing-strain infection. There was evidence that Beijing isolates caused radiologically more advanced disease.

Figures in this Article

Drug-sensitive and resistant tuberculosis (TB) rates continue to increase globally and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) has become a serious public health problem in many regions including countries of the former Soviet Union such as Russia, with an incidence rate reaching 83.0/100 000 in 2002.1 Molecular epidemiological techniques have contributed to the understanding of TB transmission24 and identified related Mycobacterium tuberculosis–strain families such as the “Beijing,” which may have distinctive properties.5 This family includes strain W responsible for MDR-TB outbreaks in the United States and other low TB–incidence countries.24

Studies have demonstrated high Beijing-strain prevalence in Asia and former Soviet Union countries.69 Explanations for the rapid dissemination of Beijing strains have included a putative higher virulence, enhanced transmissibility, an ability to escape from BCG vaccine–induced protection, greater mutability, and an association with multidrug resistance rendering cure more difficult and prolonging infectivity.1,3,5,7,914 However, by contrast, only a very weak association with resistance and the above factors was noted by Lillebaek et al.15

Many TB cases originate among prisoners in Russia where there are almost 1 million incarcerated persons (approximately 0.7% of the total population).16 For example, the TB incidence rate was nearly 25-fold higher among prisoners compared with the civil population in the Tomsk region.16 In the Samara region, the incidence of TB among civilians and prisoners at the time of the study was 86.1/100 000 and 2190.0/100 000, respectively, with incidence in pretrial detention centers of 1889.9/100 000. Overcrowding, inadequate ventilation, and long periods of incarceration facilitate transmission. Poor patient adherence to treatment during and after incarceration and high loss to follow-up after release from prison encourage the development of drug resistance, which facilitates transmission into the general population.13,17,18

We performed one of the largest (and the largest in Russia) population-based molecular epidemiological studies to systematically address: (1) Beijing strain transmission in the prison and civil sectors in the Samara region; and (2) correlation of drug resistance, clinical, and social factors with Beijing genotype to support or contradict immunopathological studies suggesting that Beijing strains had either enhanced pathogenicity or association with drug resistance.

Patients and Study Design

Consecutive pulmonary TB patients aged 18 years and older, from all civilian TB dispensaries (18) and the prison TB hospital (admitting all TB cases in the prison sector) were included over 1 year (September 2001-September 2002). All patients provided written consent. Patients were interviewed by a team of trained Russian health staff who recorded clinical (including details of radiological examination) and social data. A structured questionnaire was used to collate data that were supplemented and verified with information from the medical notes.

The questionnaire and study were developed and approved by Federal Tuberculosis Institutions, Samara TB Service and Ethics Committee, and the Samara Health Ministry under whose auspices the study was conducted. The following data were collected: age, sex, accommodation, previous imprisonment, presence of TB symptoms and signs (cough, phlegm, hemoptysis, weight loss, night sweats, fever, shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and body mass index), investigations including chest radiograph (cavitation, lung areas affected, and nature of pathology), blood pressure, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status (HIV testing was performed routinely on all TB patients), history of treatment, history of TB contacts, social and sexual health history (including alcohol consumption, smoking history, history of sexually transmitted infections, and sexual activity).

Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were isolated at the Regional TB laboratory, and drug susceptibility testing was performed with the resistance ratio method using Lowenstein–Jensen media in Samara, Russia and London, England. Spoligotyping was used to identify Beijing family isolates and performed as previously described.19 Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) analysis at 12 loci20 was also performed on 113 Beijing isolates selected proportionally from patients in the prison and civilian TB facilities.

Statistical Analysis

Data were analyzed using EpiInfo version 6 (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga), and SPSS version 10 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill), statistical software packages. Pearson χ2 or Fisher 2-tailed test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively.

All variables were included in a univariate analysis. From the univariate analysis, all variables that had a P value of ≤.01 (as multiple comparisons were used) were included in a subsequent multivariate logistic regression analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed by binary logistic regression using forward stepwise and Wald statistical criteria for logistic regression collinearity and confounding, and interactions were assessed. The final regression model used 93.3% of all available information due to some missing clinical and social data.

Nearly all eligible individuals participated in the study (<2% did not participate). Beijing family strains were dominant overall among the 880 patients recruited (253 civilians and 333 prisoners; 586/880, 66.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 63.4%-69.7%) of all isolates (Table 1).21 A significantly higher prevalence was seen in the prison population (rate ratio [RR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.5), and was more common in those aged younger than 35 years compared with older patients (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.3). Two MIRU-12 loci profiles were predominant (Table 2) as recently described in a smaller study of isolates in St Petersburg.22 In this study, however, MIRU type 2 was more common among prisoners while MIRU type 1 was more common among civilian patients.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Prevalence of Beijing Family Strains in the Sample
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Dominant MIRU-12 Loci Profiles in Civilian and Prison Tuberculosis Patients Infected With the Beijing-Strain Family

The number and proportion of Beijing and non–Beijing-infected patients with TB symptoms and signs, chest radiological appearances, social problems, and sexually transmitted diseases are given in Table 3. Comparable proportions in the 2 groups were co-infected with HIV (≈10%) and hepatitis B/C (≈20%), drank alcohol, smoked, and had a similar history of sexually transmitted diseases (Table 3). The number of episodes of imprisonment for Beijing and non–Beijing-infected patients is given in the Figure. Nearly three quarters of patients infected with Beijing strains had been in prison at some time and many had been imprisoned more than once, typically 2 to 4 times, while more than half of patients infected with non-Beijing strains had a history of imprisonment. Recreational drug use with opiates was common, usually intravenously in both groups. Prison appears to be the major site for contacts with TB cases.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Clinical and Social Characteristics of Tuberculosis Patients (N = 880) Infected With Beijing Strains vs Non-Beijing Strains
Figure. Comparison of Prison Episodes for Patients Infected With Beijing and Non-Beijing Types of Tuberculosis
Graphic Jump Location

A risk factor analysis was conducted for Beijing-strain family–associated infection. Univariate analysis demonstrated that male sex (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9), older age (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7), homelessness (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.3), and previous imprisonment (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.5-2.7) were strongly associated with Beijing-strain family–associated disease (Table 4). Advanced radiological damage (multiple zones affected with fibrotic changes and widespread cavitation) was also significantly associated based on univariate analysis (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.3-8.4). There was less association based on univariate analysis with night sweats (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9). Multivariate analysis (Table 4) supported previous imprisonment to be a risk factor (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Significant Demographic, Clinical, and Social Risk Factors Associated With Beijing Strain Infection (N = 880)

The number of prison episodes did not differ significantly between Beijing and non-Beijing–infected patients, suggesting that a single episode was sufficient to acquire Beijing-strain TB. Previous treatment for longer than 4 weeks and male sex failed to reach statistical significance (the latter presumably related to the confounding effect of imprisonment on sex, because the majority of prisoners were men). Although homelessness failed to reach significance on multivariate analysis, living in one’s own apartment (ie, the reverse of homelessness in terms of independent stable accommodation and a surrogate marker of wealth) was less associated with Beijing infection (Table 4). There were no significant differences in BCG vaccination rates in patients infected with Beijing strains (88.6%; 452/510) and in non-Beijing strains (90.6%, 213/235; 95% CI for the difference, −2.6% to 6.6%); vaccination status was unknown for 74 and 55 patients, respectively.

Drug susceptibility testing on 561 viable isolates detected high levels of resistance with significantly higher rates of resistance among strains belonging to the Beijing family (Table 5). Resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, multidrug resistance, streptomycin, and ethambutol were more than 2-fold higher in Beijing- vs non-Beijing–infected patients (Table 5).

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 5. Comparison of Resistance Levels in Beijing Compared With Non-Beijing Strains (n = 561)

The high prevalence of drug-resistant Beijing–associated TB and increasing rates of both legal and illegal migration from Russia to the United States and Western Europe makes this study relevant to all physicians treating patients with TB. The expansion of the European Union includes states of the former Soviet Union with a substantial ethnically Russian population that until recently could freely migrate within the Russian Federation and cases of MDR-TB in former Russian nationals have been identified.

Beijing family strains comprised two thirds of the isolates in this population spanning the entire prison and civilian TB systems. Drug resistance rates were significantly higher, particularly for MDR-TB among those infected with the Beijing genotype. Co-infection with HIV did not appear to have a significant impact on Beijing-associated characteristics and high rates of co-infection (approximately 10%) were seen in both groups. High rates of concurrent hepatitis B and C infection as well as HIV were seen overall, reflecting on the importance of intravenous drug abuse in this population.

There was some evidence that clinical presentation differed between the Beijing- and non–Beijing-infected groups. Although a smaller study in the Netherlands23 showed no difference in radiological appearance, this study did show that Beijing-infected patients were more likely to have radiological features of advanced disease supporting in vivo studies demonstrating a different immunopathological response in Beijing-infected mice.24 There was a lower likelihood of night sweats in Beijing-associated disease. The underlying cause of night sweats remains unclear but is presumably associated with a heightened TH1 cytokine response, which might be reduced in Beijing infection. The study by Lopez et al,24 which demonstrated that BALB/c mice infected with Beijing isolates exhibited a more severe pathology also noted a high but transient tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and low interferon γ output. Consistent with these observations were the findings of a study in which a biologically active lipid species (a polyketide synthase–derived phenolic glycolipid [PGL]) produced by Beijing strains inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α; PGL appeared to be responsible for the “hyper-lethality” of Beijing strains in murine models.25

Beijing-infected patients were more likely to have been treated previously. Whether this implies greater treatment failure or relapse due to intrinsic properties of Beijing strains per se or is due to the association with drug resistance requires further study.

The younger age of those infected with Beijing strains would support recent and active transmission, particularly among prisoners who are younger than civilian TB patients and who are more likely to be homeless or to share communal accommodation before imprisonment and on release.

Definitive TB contacts were identified in 250/582 (43.0%) of cases for Beijing and 98/289 (33.9%) for non-Beijing–individuals with the majority occurring in the prison (145/243, 59.7% and 50/92, 54.3%), respectively. Nevertheless, there was no other significant difference in the nature of TB contact between Beijing and non–Beijing-infected groups. Although 2 MIRU types predominated in both the prison and civilian sector, the proportion of each type differed (ie, MIRU type 223325153533 was more common among civilians and type 223325173533 was more common in prisoners with TB). The exact significance of this is unclear but the allelic difference may confer variation in pathogenicity or transmissibility within the populations (ie, sub-Beijing families may have different and advantageous properties, which confounds comparison of all patients infected with Beijing and non-Beijing strains). A larger comparative analysis of patients with the 2 types is needed to resolve this.

The higher rates of drug resistance among Beijing isolates in the prison (nearly twice as high as in the civilian population) supports imprisonment as the principal source of drug resistance. Smaller molecular epidemiological studies in the former Soviet Union69,19 demonstrated that a high proportion of TB strains overall belonged to the Beijing family but were limited to either prison or civilian patients or did not include knowledge of patients’ HIV or clinical status.

When introduced de novo, Beijing-strain family isolates have been shown to spread successfully. For example, on Gran Canaria, 1 of the 7 Canary Islands,26 rapid dissemination of the Beijing genotype was observed over a 3-year period from its introduction onto the island in 1993. It has been postulated that Beijing isolates are more virulent and also that they may be escape mutants circumventing BCG-induced immune protection. In a country such as Russia with a historical policy of multiple BCG vaccinations throughout childhood, it is possible that the widespread prevalence of Beijing isolates in this setting is because of an evolutionary advantage over other strains. Nevertheless, we have not discovered significant differences between the BCG status of patients infected with Beijing and non-Beijing strains. The widespread prevalence of Beijing isolates in this setting is, therefore, likely to be a combination of high levels of drug resistance that reduce cure rates and maintain a pool of infectious cases, and the opportunity for institutional spread particularly in prison and intrinsic properties of the Beijing family itself in the interaction with the host.

Given the existing epidemiology, rapid and inexpensive methods for diagnosing rifampin-, isoniazid-, and multidrug-resistant TB are urgently required, coupled with improved institutional cross-infection procedures for both TB and HIV. Correction of current weaknesses in the system for TB health care delivery, accompanied by the implementation of a directly observed therapy short course (DOTS-style program), supplemented by rapid diagnosis of resistance and appropriate regimens for the treatment of highly drug-resistant TB are required. Delivery of antiretroviral therapy for those with HIV infection is essential.

This was a large prospective population-based study but larger clinical and immunopathological studies are needed with more discriminating molecular epidemiological tools to verify enhanced virulence of the Beijing family (or other strain-family groups) in humans.

Corresponding Author: Francis Drobniewski, MD, PhD, HPA Mycobacterium Reference Unit, Clinical Sciences Center, Institute of Cell and Molecular Sciences, Queen Mary’s School of Medicine, Newark Street, London E1, England (francis.drobniewski@kcl.ac.uk).

Author Contributions: Dr Drobniewski had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Study concept and design: Drobniewski, Balabanova, Ruddy.

Acquisition of data: Drobniewski, Balabanova, Ruddy, Zakharova, Fedorin.

Analysis and interpretation of data: Drobniewski, Balabanova, Nikolayevsky.

Drafting of the manuscript: Drobniewski, Balabanova, Nikolayevsky.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Drobniewski, Balabanova, Ruddy, Kuznetzov, Zakharova, Melentyev, Fedorin.

Statistical analysis: Balabanova, Drobniewski.

Obtained funding: Drobniewski.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Drobniewski, Balabanova, Ruddy, Kuznetzov, Zakharova, Melentyev, Fedorin.

Study supervision: Drobniewski, Balabanova, Ruddy, Zakharova, Fedorin.

Financial Disclosures: None reported.

Funding/Support: This work was funded by the UK Department for International Development (CNTR 00 0134).

Role of the Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design or conduct of the study and no role in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.

Acknowledgment: We thank the staff of the Moscow Federal Central Tuberculosis Research Institute and Research Institute for Phthsiopulmonology and Samara Regional TB service dispensaries and hospitals for their valuable advice and support. We are particularly grateful to the bacteriologists, physicians, and nurses as well as the patients who took part in the study.

Drobniewski F, Balabanova Y, Coker R. Clinical features, diagnosis, and management of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis since 2002.  Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2004;10:211-217
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Van Soolingen D. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections: main methodologies and achievements.  J Intern Med. 2001;249:1-26
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Glynn JR, Whiteley J, Bifani PJ, Kremer K, van Soolingen D. Worldwide occurrence of Beijing/W strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a systematic review.  Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:843-849
PubMed
Bifani PJ, Mathema B, Kurepina NE, Kreiswirth BN. Global dissemination of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing family strains.  Trends Microbiol. 2002;10:45-52
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Van Soolingen D, Qian L, de Haas PE.  et al.  Predominance of a single genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in countries of east Asia.  J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33:3234-3238
PubMed
Kruuner A, Hoffner SE, Sillastu H.  et al.  Spread of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in Estonia.  J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3339-3345
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Narvskaia OV, Vishnevskii BI, El'kin AV.  et al.  Molecular genetic characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients operated on for pulmonary tuberculosis.  Probl Tuberk. 2002;3:50-53
PubMed
Narvskaya O, Otten T, Limeschenko E.  et al.  Nosocomial outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis caused by a strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing family in St. Petersburg, Russia.  Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;21:596-602
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Tracevska T, Jansone I, Baumanis V, Marga O, Lillebaek T. Prevalence of Beijing genotype in Latvian multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.  Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7:1097-1103
PubMed
Van Soolingen D, Arbeit RD. Dealing with variation in molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: low-intensity bands and other challenges.  J Med Microbiol. 2001;50:749-751
PubMed
Kruuner A, Pehme L, Ghebremichael S, Koivula T, Hoffner SE, Mikelsaar M. Use of molecular techniques to distinguish between treatment failure and exogenous reinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:146-155
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Anh DD, Borgdorff MW, Van LN.  et al.  Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype emerging in Vietnam.  Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:302-305
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Pfyffer GE, Strassle A, van Gorkum T.  et al.  Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in prison inmates, Azerbaijan.  Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:855-861
PubMed
Lan NT, Lien HT, Tung le B, Borgdorff MW, Kremer K, van Soolingen D. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype and risk for treatment failure and relapse, Vietnam.  Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1633-1635
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Lillebaek T, Andersen AB, Dirksen A, Glynn JR, Kremer K. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype.  Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1553-1557
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Kimerling ME, Slavuckij A, Chavers S.  et al.  The risk of MDR-TB and polyresistant tuberculosis among the civilian population of Tomsk city, Siberia, 1999.  Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7:866-872
PubMed
Toungoussova S, Caugant DA, Sandven P, Mariandyshev AO, Bjune G. Drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Archangels, Russia.  Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2002;6:406-414
PubMed
Coker R, Dimitrova B, Drobniewski F.  et al.  Tuberculosis control in Samara Oblast, Russia: institutional and regulatory environment.  Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7:920-932
PubMed
Van Soolingen D, Hermans PW. Epidemiology of tuberculosis by DNA fingerprinting.  Eur Respir J Suppl. 1995;20:649s-656s
PubMed
Supply P, Lesjean S, Savine E, Kremer K, van Soolingen D, Locht C. Automated high-throughput genotyping for study of global epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units.  J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3563-3571
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Abramson JH, Gahlinger PM. Computer Programs for Epidemiologists PEPI v 4.0Salt Lake City, Utah: Sagebrush Press; 2001
Mokrousov I, Narvskaya O, Limeschenko E, Vyazovaya A, Otten T, Vyshnevskiy B. Analysis of the allelic diversity of the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing family: practical implications and evolutionary considerations.  J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2438-2444
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Borgdorff MW, Van Deutekom H, De Haas PE, Kremer K, Van Soolingen D. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Beijing genotype strains not associated with radiological presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis.  Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2004;84:337-340
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Lopez B, Aguilar D, Orozco H.  et al.  A marked difference in pathogenesis and immune response induced by different Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes.  Clin Exp Immunol. 2003;133:30-37
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Reed MB, Domenech P, Manca C.  et al.  A glycolipid of hypervirulent tuberculosis strains that inhibits the innate immune response.  Nature. 2004;431:84-87
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Caminero JA, Pena MJ, Campos-Herrero MI.  et al.  Epidemiological evidence of the spread of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain of the Beijing genotype on Gran Canaria Island.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:1165-1170
PubMed   |  Link to Article

Figures

Figure. Comparison of Prison Episodes for Patients Infected With Beijing and Non-Beijing Types of Tuberculosis
Graphic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 1. Prevalence of Beijing Family Strains in the Sample
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 2. Dominant MIRU-12 Loci Profiles in Civilian and Prison Tuberculosis Patients Infected With the Beijing-Strain Family
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 3. Clinical and Social Characteristics of Tuberculosis Patients (N = 880) Infected With Beijing Strains vs Non-Beijing Strains
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 4. Significant Demographic, Clinical, and Social Risk Factors Associated With Beijing Strain Infection (N = 880)
Table Graphic Jump LocationTable 5. Comparison of Resistance Levels in Beijing Compared With Non-Beijing Strains (n = 561)

References

Drobniewski F, Balabanova Y, Coker R. Clinical features, diagnosis, and management of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis since 2002.  Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2004;10:211-217
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Van Soolingen D. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections: main methodologies and achievements.  J Intern Med. 2001;249:1-26
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Glynn JR, Whiteley J, Bifani PJ, Kremer K, van Soolingen D. Worldwide occurrence of Beijing/W strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a systematic review.  Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:843-849
PubMed
Bifani PJ, Mathema B, Kurepina NE, Kreiswirth BN. Global dissemination of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing family strains.  Trends Microbiol. 2002;10:45-52
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Van Soolingen D, Qian L, de Haas PE.  et al.  Predominance of a single genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in countries of east Asia.  J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33:3234-3238
PubMed
Kruuner A, Hoffner SE, Sillastu H.  et al.  Spread of drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in Estonia.  J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3339-3345
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Narvskaia OV, Vishnevskii BI, El'kin AV.  et al.  Molecular genetic characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients operated on for pulmonary tuberculosis.  Probl Tuberk. 2002;3:50-53
PubMed
Narvskaya O, Otten T, Limeschenko E.  et al.  Nosocomial outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis caused by a strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis W-Beijing family in St. Petersburg, Russia.  Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002;21:596-602
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Tracevska T, Jansone I, Baumanis V, Marga O, Lillebaek T. Prevalence of Beijing genotype in Latvian multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.  Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7:1097-1103
PubMed
Van Soolingen D, Arbeit RD. Dealing with variation in molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: low-intensity bands and other challenges.  J Med Microbiol. 2001;50:749-751
PubMed
Kruuner A, Pehme L, Ghebremichael S, Koivula T, Hoffner SE, Mikelsaar M. Use of molecular techniques to distinguish between treatment failure and exogenous reinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:146-155
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Anh DD, Borgdorff MW, Van LN.  et al.  Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype emerging in Vietnam.  Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:302-305
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Pfyffer GE, Strassle A, van Gorkum T.  et al.  Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in prison inmates, Azerbaijan.  Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:855-861
PubMed
Lan NT, Lien HT, Tung le B, Borgdorff MW, Kremer K, van Soolingen D. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype and risk for treatment failure and relapse, Vietnam.  Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1633-1635
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Lillebaek T, Andersen AB, Dirksen A, Glynn JR, Kremer K. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype.  Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1553-1557
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Kimerling ME, Slavuckij A, Chavers S.  et al.  The risk of MDR-TB and polyresistant tuberculosis among the civilian population of Tomsk city, Siberia, 1999.  Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7:866-872
PubMed
Toungoussova S, Caugant DA, Sandven P, Mariandyshev AO, Bjune G. Drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Archangels, Russia.  Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2002;6:406-414
PubMed
Coker R, Dimitrova B, Drobniewski F.  et al.  Tuberculosis control in Samara Oblast, Russia: institutional and regulatory environment.  Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003;7:920-932
PubMed
Van Soolingen D, Hermans PW. Epidemiology of tuberculosis by DNA fingerprinting.  Eur Respir J Suppl. 1995;20:649s-656s
PubMed
Supply P, Lesjean S, Savine E, Kremer K, van Soolingen D, Locht C. Automated high-throughput genotyping for study of global epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units.  J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3563-3571
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Abramson JH, Gahlinger PM. Computer Programs for Epidemiologists PEPI v 4.0Salt Lake City, Utah: Sagebrush Press; 2001
Mokrousov I, Narvskaya O, Limeschenko E, Vyazovaya A, Otten T, Vyshnevskiy B. Analysis of the allelic diversity of the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing family: practical implications and evolutionary considerations.  J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2438-2444
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Borgdorff MW, Van Deutekom H, De Haas PE, Kremer K, Van Soolingen D. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Beijing genotype strains not associated with radiological presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis.  Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2004;84:337-340
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Lopez B, Aguilar D, Orozco H.  et al.  A marked difference in pathogenesis and immune response induced by different Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes.  Clin Exp Immunol. 2003;133:30-37
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Reed MB, Domenech P, Manca C.  et al.  A glycolipid of hypervirulent tuberculosis strains that inhibits the innate immune response.  Nature. 2004;431:84-87
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Caminero JA, Pena MJ, Campos-Herrero MI.  et al.  Epidemiological evidence of the spread of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain of the Beijing genotype on Gran Canaria Island.  Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:1165-1170
PubMed   |  Link to Article

Letters

CME
Meets CME requirements for:
Browse CME for all U.S. States
Accreditation Information
The American Medical Association is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians. The AMA designates this journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM per course. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. Physicians who complete the CME course and score at least 80% correct on the quiz are eligible for AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM.
Note: You must get at least of the answers correct to pass this quiz.
You have not filled in all the answers to complete this quiz
The following questions were not answered:
Sorry, you have unsuccessfully completed this CME quiz with a score of
The following questions were not answered correctly:
Commitment to Change (optional):
Indicate what change(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.
Your quiz results:
The filled radio buttons indicate your responses. The preferred responses are highlighted
For CME Course: A Proposed Model for Initial Assessment and Management of Acute Heart Failure Syndromes
Indicate what changes(s) you will implement in your practice, if any, based on this CME course.

Multimedia

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Web of Science® Times Cited: 133

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Articles Related By Topic
Related Collections
PubMed Articles