Author Contributions: Dr Kessler had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Kessler, Sage.
Acquisition of data: Kessler.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Kessler,
Drafting of the manuscript: Kessler, Sage.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Kessler, Sage, Becker.
Statistical analysis: Kessler, Becker.
Obtained funding: Sage.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Study supervision: Kessler.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by
the Project on Medical Liability in Pennsylvania funded by The Pew Charitable
Trusts (grant 2002-00279).
Role of the Sponsor: The Pew Charitable Trusts
had no role in the design or conduct of the study; analysis and interpretation
of data; or preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We thank Columbia student Nathaniel
B. Chase for research assistance.