Author Contributions: Dr Studdert had full
access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Studdert, Mello,
Sage, DesRoches, Peugh, Zapert, Brennan.
Acquisition of data: Studdert, Mello, DesRoches,
Analysis and interpretation of data: Studdert,
Mello, Sage, Brennan.
Drafting of the manuscript: Studdert, Sage.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Studdert, Mello, Sage, DesRoches, Peugh, Zapert,
Statistical analysis: Studdert, DesRoches.
Obtained funding: Studdert, Mello, Sage.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Study supervision: Studdert, Brennan.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by grant
2002-00279 from the Pew Charitable Trusts as part of the Project on Medical
Liability in Pennsylvania.
Role of the Sponsor: The funding organization
had no role in the design or conduct of the study; the collection, management,
analysis, or interpretation of the data; or the preparation review, or approval
of the manuscript for submission.
Acknowledgment: We thank Atul Gawande, MD,
MPH, and John Orav, PhD, for helpful comments on an earlier draft of this