Author Contributions: Dr Michaels had full
access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Marcus, Gerber, Vessey,
Acquisition of data: Gerber, McKeown, Jordan,
Huddleston, Foster, Michaels.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Marcus,
Gerber, McKeown, McCulloch, Michaels.
Drafting of the manuscript: Marcus, Michaels.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Marcus, Gerber, McKeown, Vessey, Jordan, Huddleston,
McCulloch, Foster, Chatterjee, Michaels.
Statistical analysis: McCulloch, Michaels.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Study supervision: Foster, Chatterjee, Michaels.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Michaels has received
an unrestricted educational grant from Inovise Medical Inc, Portland, Ore.
None of the other authors reported disclosures.
Funding/Support: Dr Michaels is supported by
National Institutes of Health Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development
Award K23 RR018319-01 A1. Training, shipment of equipment, supplies, use of
the phonocardiographic equipment, and interpretation of the tracings was provided
free of charge by Inovise Medical Inc.
Role of the Sponsor: Inovise Medical Inc was
not involved in the design of the study, data management, data analysis, or
manuscript preparation or authorship. Inovise Medical Inc was allowed to review
the manuscript. However, any decisions regarding manuscript revision were
made by the authors.
Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the patients
who participated in this study; the staff in the UCSF Cardiac Catheterization
Laboratory for their technical assistance; and Patti Arand, Nancy Forman,
and Robert Warner of Inovise Medical Inc for training and technical support.