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Abciximab as Adjunctive Therapy to Reperfusion in Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction:  A Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials FREE

Giuseppe De Luca, MD; Harry Suryapranata, MD, PhD; Gregg W. Stone, MD; David Antoniucci, MD; James E. Tcheng, MD; Franz-Josef Neumann, MD; Frans Van de Werf, MD; Elliott M. Antman, MD; Eric J. Topol, MD
[+] Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Isala Klinieken, Hospital De Weezenlanden, Zwolle, the Netherlands (Drs De Luca and Suryapranata); Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Lenox Hill Heart and Vascular Institute, New York, NY (Dr Stone); Division of Cardiology, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy (Dr Antoniucci); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC (Dr Tcheng); Medizinische Klinik, Technische Universität Munchen, Munich, Germany (Dr Neumann); Department of Cardiology, Gasthuisberg University Hospital, Leuven, Belgium (Dr Van de Werf); Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Mass (Dr Antman); and Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (Dr Topol).

More Author Information
JAMA. 2005;293(14):1759-1765. doi:10.1001/jama.293.14.1759.
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Published online

Context The benefits of abciximab in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are still a matter of debate.

Objective To combine data from all randomized trials conducted with abciximab in STEMI.

Data Sources Formal searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed) from from January 1990 to December 2004.

Study Selection We examined all completed, published, randomized trials of abciximab in STEMI. The following key words were used for study selection: randomized trial, myocardial infarction, reperfusion, primary angioplasty, facilitated angioplasty, stenting, fibrinolysis, IIb-IIIa inhibitors, and abciximab.

Data Extraction Information on study design, type and dosage of drugs, inclusion and exclusion criteria, number of patients, and clinical outcome was extracted by 2 investigators. Disagreements were resolved by consensus.

Data Synthesis Eleven trials were analyzed, involving 27115 patients (12 602 [46.5%] in the abciximab group, 14 513 [53.5%] in the control group). When compared with the control group, abciximab was associated with a significant reduction in short-term (30 days) mortality (2.4% vs 3.4%, P = .047) and long-term (6-12 months) mortality (4.4% vs 6.2%, P = .01) in patients undergoing primary angioplasty but not in those treated with fibrinolysis or in all trials combined. Abciximab was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day reinfarction, both in all trials combined (2.1% vs 3.3%, P<.001), in primary angioplasty (1.0% vs 1.9%, P = .03), and in fibrinolysis trials (2.3% vs 3.6%, P<.001). Abciximab did not result in an increased risk of intracranial bleeding (0.61% vs 0.62%, P = .62) but was associated with an increased risk of major bleeding complications when combined with fibrinolysis (5.2% vs 3.1%, P<.001) but not with primary angioplasty (4.7% vs 4.1%, P = .36).

Conclusions This meta-analysis shows that, when compared with the control group, adjunctive abciximab for STEMI is associated with a significant reduction in 30-day and long-term mortality in patients treated with primary angioplasty but not in those receiving fibrinolysis. The 30-day reinfarction rate is significantly reduced in patients treated with either fibrinolysis or primary angioplasty. A higher risk of major bleeding complications is observed with abciximab in association with fibrinolysis.

Figures in this Article

The treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has substantially evolved over the past decades, mainly due to the adoption of pharmacological and mechanical reperfusion therapies1,2 and improvement in antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapies.235 However, despite successful revascularization, suboptimal reperfusion may occur, resulting in unfavorable outcome.34 The strategy of adding glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa inhibitors to both pharmacological and mechanical reperfusion would appear attractive.

Several studies have shown that abciximab is associated with better tissue reperfusion and better recovery of left ventricular function.5,1518,33 The underlying mechanisms for these beneficial effects may be diminished distal embolization of platelet aggregates or inhibition of direct interaction of platelets with the reperfused endothelium by abciximab,35,36 particularly when combined with fibrinolysis, which has been shown to increase platelet activation and aggregation.37 To reduce the risk of bleeding complications, half-dose fibrinolytic therapy has been proposed in combination with abciximab.

However, the effect of Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors on outcomes in patients with STEMI remains controversial. Previous meta-analyses have been restricted to primary angioplasty trials and have failed to include all randomized trials.3841 Since only a few small trials have been conducted on tirofiban and eptifibatide,2630,32 we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of all randomized trials with abciximab as adjunctive therapy in treatment of STEMI.

Eligibility and Search Strategy

We obtained results from all completed, published, randomized trials of abciximab in STEMI. The literature was scanned by formal searches of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed) from January 1990 to December 2004, and the scientific session abstracts in CirculationJournal of the American College of Cardiology, and European Heart Journal from January 1999 to December 2004. The following key words were used: randomized trial, myocardial infarction, reperfusion, primary angioplasty, facilitated angioplasty, stenting, fibrinolysis, IIb-IIIa inhibitors, and abciximab. The treatment and the control groups within each trial had to receive the same primary reperfusion treatment (fibrinolysis or primary angioplasty).

Data Extraction

Information on study design, type and dosage of drugs, inclusion and exclusion criteria, number of patients, and clinical outcome was extracted by 2 investigators. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. In case of incomplete or unclear data, authors were contacted where possible. Data were managed according to the intention-to-treat principle.

Outcomes

Primary end points were mortality at 30 days and at long-term follow-up. The secondary end point was reinfarction at 30 days. Safety end points included intracranial bleeding and other major bleeding complications (defined by Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction [TIMI]42 or Global Utilization of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries [GUSTO]43 criteria).

Data Analysis

Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager 4.27 (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, England), SPSS 11.5 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill), and SAS version 8.2 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as summary statistics. The pooled OR was calculated by using a fixed-effects model with the Mantel-Haenszel method, and the Breslow-Day test was used to examine the statistical evidence of heterogeneity across the studies (P<.10). The DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model was additionally applied to calculate pooled ORs in case of significant heterogeneity across studies. A first analysis was conducted including all trials. Prespecified subanalyses were performed according to the treatment of interest (fibrinolysis or primary angioplasty).

The potential publication bias was examined by constructing a funnel plot in which sample size was plotted against ORs for the primary end point available from all studies. In addition, a linear regression approach to measure funnel plot asymmetry was used.44 The influence of individual studies on the summary effect estimates was evaluated by reestimating and plotting the summary OR in the absence of each study.

According to absolute risk reduction or increment, we calculated the number needed to treat to prevent 1 event, whereas for the safety end points we calculated the number needed to harm to determine 1 adverse event.

A total of 13 randomized trials2,4,5,8,1018 were identified. One study5 was part of the ISAR trial8 and so was excluded from analysis; another study was also excluded because complete follow-up data were not available.17 Therefore, a total of 11 trials were analyzed (Table), involving 27115 patients (12 602 [46.5%] in the abciximab group, 14 513 [53.5%] in the control group). Eight trials including 3949 patients were conducted in primary angioplasty,2,4,8,10,1416,18 whereas 3 trials1113 conducted with fibrinolysis included 23 166 patients (85.3% of the entire meta-analysis). In all trials except for ASSENT-311 and ENTIRE-TIMI 23,13 weight-adjusted unfractioned heparin was used (Table). In all patients from fibrinolysis trials, full-dose abciximab was given in association with half-dose fibrinolytic therapy. In the study by Petronio et al,14 mechanical revascularization was performed after failed fibrinolysis.

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable. Characteristics of Primary Angioplasty and Fibrinolysis Randomized Trials Included in the Meta-analysis
Primary End Points

Mortality at 30 Days. As shown in Figure 1, abciximab was not associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality in all trials combined (5.2% vs 5.5%; OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87-1.08; P = .61 [P = .38 for heterogeneity; P = .08 for heterogeneity between reperfusion strategies]) or in fibrinolysis trials (5.8% vs 5.8%; OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.9-1.12; P = .95 [P = .25 for heterogeneity]). A significant reduction in mortality was observed only in angioplasty trials (2.4% vs 3.4%; OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.99; P = .047 [P = .77 for heterogeneity]). According to a risk reduction of 1.0% in primary angioplasty trials, we estimated a number needed to treat of 100 to prevent 1 death at 30-day follow-up.

Figure 1. Abciximab and 30-Day Mortality From Fixed-Effects Model
Graphic Jump Location

The size of the data markers (squares) is approximately proportional to the sample size of each treatment group (primary angioplasty or fibrinolysis). CI indicates confidence interval.

Long-term Mortality. As shown in Figure 2, abciximab was not associated with a significant reduction in long-term (6-12 months) mortality in the overall cohort of patients (7.9% vs 8.0%; fixed-effects model: OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91-1.09; P = .98; random-effects model: OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.71-1.09; P = .25 [P = .03 for heterogeneity; P = .01 for heterogeneity between reperfusion strategies]) or in fibrinolysis trials (8.6% vs 8.3%; OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.95-1.15; P = .41 [P = .15 for heterogeneity]). Significant benefits were observed in primary angioplasty trials (4.4% vs 6.2%; OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.92; P = .01 [P = .15 for heterogeneity]). According to a risk reduction of 1.8% in primary angioplasty trials, we estimated a number needed to treat of 55.6 to prevent 1 death at long-term follow-up.

Figure 2. Abciximab and Long-Term (6- and 12-Month) Mortality From Fixed-Effects Model
Graphic Jump Location

The size of the data markers (squares) is approximately proportional to the sample size of each treatment group (primary angioplasty or fibrinolysis). CI indicates confidence interval.
*Indicates 6-month follow-up.

Secondary End Points

Reinfarction at 30 Days. As shown in Figure 3, abciximab was associated with a reduction in 30-day reinfarction in all trials combined (2.1% vs 3.3%; OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.54-0.73; P<.001 [P = .66 for heterogeneity; P = .56 for heterogeneity between reperfusion strategies]), in primary angioplasty trials (1.0% vs 1.9%; OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33-0.94; P = .03 [P = .51 for heterogeneity]), and in fibrinolysis trials (2.3% vs 3.6%; OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.54-0.75; P<.001 [P = .48 for heterogeneity]).

Figure 3. Abciximab and 30-Day Reinfarction
Graphic Jump Location

The size of the data markers (squares) is approximately proportional to the sample size of each treatment group (primary angioplasty or fibrinolysis). CI indicates confidence interval.

According to the absolute risk reduction, we estimated a number needed to treat of 83.3 in all trials combined, 111.1 in primary angioplasty trials, and 76.9 in fibrinolysis trials, to prevent 1 reinfarction at 30 days.

Safety End Point. Abciximab was not associated with a higher incidence of intracranial bleeding in all studies combined (0.61% vs 0.62%; OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.79-1.46; P = .62 [P = .93 for heterogeneity; P = .95 for heterogeneity between reperfusion strategies]), in angioplasty trials (0.06% vs 0.11%; OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.31-3.01; P = .96 [P = .93 for hetrogeneity]), or in fibrinolysis trials (0.70% vs 0.69%; OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.79-1.49; P = .60 [P = .44 for heterogeneity]). However, abciximab was associated with a higher incidence of bleeding complications in all trials (5.2.% vs 3.2%; fixed-effects model: OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.47-1.88; P<.001; random-effects model: OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.15-1.98; P<.001 [P = .02 for heterogeneity and for heterogeneity between reperfusion strategies]) and in fibrinolysis trials (5.2% vs 3.1%; OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.55-2.03; P<.001 [P = .15 for heterogeneity]), with a number needed to harm of 50 and 47.6, respectively, whereas no difference was observed in angioplasty trials (4.7% vs 4.1%; OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.85-1.59; P = .36 [P = .12 for heterogeneity]).

Assessment of Publication Bias

The potential publication bias for the primary end point (mortality at 30 days) was analyzed by the visual analysis of the funnel plot (Figure 4) and by the mathematical estimate of the asymmetry of this plot provided by a linear regression approach. The intercept of the regression line did not deviate significantly from zero (α = −0.1; 95% CI, −0.28 to 0.08; P = .40). Individual studies did not influence the effect estimates of the meta-analysis.

Figure 4. Funnel Plot of All Studies Included in the Meta-analysis
Graphic Jump Location

Sample size of each study was plotted against the odds ratio for 30-day mortality (primary end point available from all trials). No skewed distribution was observed, suggesting no publication bias.

The aim of the current study was to perform a comprehensive, updated meta-analysis of all randomized trials with abciximab as adjunctive therapy in management of STEMI. Previous meta-analyses have been restricted to primary angioplasty trials and have failed to include all currently available randomized trials.3841

The main finding of this meta-analysis is that adjunctive abciximab therapy is associated with a significant reduction in 30-day reinfarction in patients with STEMI treated with either pharmacological or mechanical reperfusion, whereas a significant reduction in short- and long-term mortality was observed only in patients undergoing primary angioplasty. Abciximab was not associated with an increased risk of intracranial bleeding, whereas a higher risk of major bleeding complications was observed in conjunction with fibrinolytic therapy. However, the GUSTO V45 and ASSENT-311 trials have shown that abciximab in conjunction with fibrinolysis is associated with an increased risk of intracranial bleeding in elderly patients.

The benefits in mortality with abciximab in patients treated with primary angioplasty may be related to the fact that abciximab may prevent distal embolization and improve myocardial perfusion. As reported by Henriques et al,46 distal embolization is observed in up to 16% of patients undergoing primary angioplasty, resulting in impaired myocardial perfusion and high long-term mortality.

Given the advances in fibrinolysis and primary angioplasty of the last decades,1,2 further attempts to reduce mortality are not easily demonstrated. Highly selected non–high-risk patients are commonly enrolled in randomized trials, whereas benefits on mortality have been shown in trials enrolling only high-risk patients.8,10,14,16,18 Several nonrandomized studies have shown significantly better survival in patients with cardiogenic shock treated with primary angioplasty and abciximab.47

Still a matter of debate is the timing of administration of abciximab. Although primary angioplasty has been shown to be superior to fibrinolysis,1 the time delay related to transportation to tertiary centers remains a major drawback, particularly in high-risk patients.48 Therefore, early administration of pharmacological therapy, before or during transport to the hospital, may lead to earlier reperfusion with subsequent smaller infarct size and better clinical outcome.10,16,19,23,49 In most trials, abciximab was administered just before the angioplasty procedure. Among angioplasty trials, only in the ADMIRAL trial10 was abciximab started earlier in all patients. This resulted in improvement of preprocedural angiographic flow and subsequent clinical outcome, particularly when therapy was started in the ambulance or emergency department. However, randomized trials conducted so far have shown no benefits from pretreatment with fibrinolysis in patients undergoing primary angioplasty.50,51 This may be due to the potential platelet aggregation induced by fibrinolysis.37 Furthermore, since the role of Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors is to protect the microcirculation from platelet aggregation and leukocyte plugging, intracoronary administration of Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors might be more effective than intravenous administration at the time of balloon inflation.52 In addition, the effect of abciximab on mortality in diabetic patients with STEMI is still unclear. Only in the GUSTO V,12 ASSENT-3,11 and ADMIRAL10 trials were subanalyses conducted in diabetic patients, and these results were conflicting.

There are several limitations to this study. Our meta-analysis was not performed on individual patient data, because complete individual data were not available from all studies. Moreover, a larger proportion of patients included in this meta-analysis have been enrolled in fibrinolysis trials. Even though patients in the study by Petronio et al14 were randomized after failed fibrinolysis, this study was included in the angioplasty group because this trial was conducted to evaluate the additional benefits of abciximab in patients undergoing planned mechanical revascularization. Furthermore, subanalysis was not performed in patients undergoing primary stenting or balloon angioplasty. However, recent data from large randomized trials2,53 have shown that primary stenting, with or without abciximab, has no additional benefits in terms of death and reinfarction, which are the only end points of this meta-analysis.

Although the very low rate of intracranial bleeding (observed in only 1 patient [0.06%]) in primary angioplasty trials would suggest the safety of abciximab, more information on the interaction between age and the risk of intracranial bleeding should be reported in future randomized trials.

This meta-analysis was not able to evaluate the benefits of abciximab according to all potential strategies (primary angioplasty, fibrinolysis, or fibrinolysis followed by angioplasty). In almost all fibrinolysis trials, angioplasty was performed as rescue therapy in case of failed fibrinolysis, whereas only 1 study14 focused on angioplasty after fibrinolysis. Furthermore, both visual and mathematical analysis cannot completely exclude any publication bias. Finally, the conclusions of this meta-analysis cannot be extended to other Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors such as tirofiban and eptifibatide.

This meta-analysis shows that abciximab, as adjunctive therapy to both primary angioplasty and fibrinolytictherapy for STEMI, is associated with a significant reduction in short-term reinfarction rate, whereas the benefits in reducing mortality are observed only in association with primary angioplasty. Abciximab is not associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage (except in combination with fibrinolysis in elderly patients), whereas a higher risk of major bleeding complications is observed only in association with fibrinolysis.

Until the results of large randomized trials24,25 are available, this meta-analysis suggests that abciximab should be strongly considered in primary angioplasty for STEMI, particularly in high-risk patients, whereas the combination of abciximab and fibrinolysis should be avoided due to the observed higher risk of bleeding complications, particularly in elderly patients.45

Corresponding Author: Harry Suryapranata, MD, PhD, Isala Klinieken, Hospital De Weezenlanden, Groot Wezenland 20, 8011 JW Zwolle, the Netherlands (h.suryapranata@diagram-zwolle.nl).

Author Contributions: Dr De Luca had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Study concept and design: De Luca, Suryapranata, Stone, Antoniucci, Antman, Topol.

Acquisition of data: De Luca, Suryapranata, Antman.

Analysis and interpretation of data: De Luca, Suryapranata, Stone, Antoniucci, Tcheng, Neumann, Van de Werf.

Drafting of the manuscript; statistical analysis: De Luca, Topol.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content; study supervision: Suryapranata, Stone, Antoniucci, Tcheng, Neumann, Van de Werf, Antman.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Stone, Antman, Topol.

Financial Disclosures: None reported.

Acknowledgment: We thank Evelien Kolkman (Diagram BV, Zwolle, the Netherlands) and Erminio Bonizzoni, PhD (Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry, University of Milan), for their statistical expertise.

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Kleiman NS, Ohman EM, Califf RM.  et al.  Profound inhibition of platelet aggregation with monoclonal antibody 7E3 Fab after thrombolytic therapy: results of the Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction (TAMI) 8 Pilot Study.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993;22:381-389
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Peters S, Trummel M, Bratstrom A.  et al.  Pilot study of the effectiveness of combination therapy with reduced dose alteplase and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist tirofiban in acute myocardial infarction [in German].  Z Kardiol. 2002;91:233-237
PubMed   |  Link to Article
de Lemos JA, Antman EM, Gibson CM.  et al.  Abciximab improves both epicardial flow and myocardial reperfusion in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: observations from the TIMI 14 trial.  Circulation. 2000;101:239-243
PubMed   |  Link to Article
van ‘t Hof A, Liem A, Suryapranata H.  et al. Zwolle Myocardial Infarction Study Group.  Angiographic assessment of myocardial reperfusion in patients treated with primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction: myocardial blush grade.  Circulation. 1998;97:2302-2306
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Coller BS. Potential non-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa effects of abciximab.  Am Heart J. 1999;138:S1-S5
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Schwarz M, Nordt T, Bode C.  et al.  The GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab (c7E3) inhibits the binding of various ligands to the leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, alphaMbeta2).  Thromb Res. 2002;107:121-128
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Eisenberg PR, Sobel BE, Jaffe AS. Activation of prothrombin accompanying thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992;19:1065-1069
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Topol EJ, Neumann FJ, Montalescot G. A preferred reperfusion strategy for acute myocardial infarction.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:1886-1889
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Eisenberg MJ, Jamal S. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition in the setting of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:1-6
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Kandzari DE, Hasselblad V, Tcheng JE.  et al.  Improved clinical outcomes with abciximab therapy in acute myocardial infarction: a systematic overview of randomized clinical trials.  Am Heart J. 2004;147:457-462
PubMed   |  Link to Article
de Queiroz Fernandes Araujo JO, Veloso HH, Braga De Paiva JM.  et al.  Efficacy and safety of abciximab on acute myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.  Am Heart J. 2004;148:937-943
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Rao AK, Pratt C, Berke A.  et al.  Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Trial—phase I: hemorrhagic manifestations and changes in plasma fibrinogen and the fibrinolytic system in patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and streptokinase.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988;11:1-11
PubMed   |  Link to Article
GUSTO Investigators.  An international randomized trial comparing four thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction.  N Engl J Med. 1993;329:673-682
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Egger M, Smith GD. Bias in location and selection of studies.  BMJ. 1998;316:61-66
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Savonitto S, Armstrong PW, Lincoff AM.  et al.  Risk of intracranial haemorrhage with combined fibrinolytic and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy in acute myocardial infarction: dichotomous response as a function of age in the GUSTO V trial.  Eur Heart J. 2003;24:1807-1814
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Henriques JP, Zijlstra F, Ottervanger JP.  et al.  Incidence and clinical significance of distal embolization during primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction.  Eur Heart J. 2002;23:1112-1117
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Antoniucci D, Valenti R, Migliorini A.  et al.  Abciximab therapy improves survival in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by early cardiogenic shock undergoing coronary artery stent implantation.  Am J Cardiol. 2002;90:353-357
PubMed   |  Link to Article
De Luca G, Suryapranata H, Zijlstra F.  et al. Zwolle Myocardial Infarction Study Group.  Symptom-onset-to-balloon time and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by primary angioplasty.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:991-997
PubMed   |  Link to Article
De Luca G, Ernst N, Zijlstra F.  et al.  Preprocedural TIMI flow and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by primary angioplasty.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:1363-1367
PubMed   |  Link to Article
O'Neill WW, Weintraub R, Grines CL.  et al.  A prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of intravenous streptokinase and angioplasty versus lone angioplasty therapy of acute myocardial infarction.  Circulation. 1992;86:1710-1717
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Ross AM, Coyne KS, Reiner JS.  et al.  A randomized trial comparing primary angioplasty with a strategy of short-acting thrombolysis and immediate planned rescue angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction: the PACT trial.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;34:1954-1962
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Wohrle J, Grebe OC, Nusser T.  et al.  Reduction of major adverse cardiac events with intracoronary compared with intravenous bolus application of abciximab in patients with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina undergoing coronary angioplasty.  Circulation. 2003;107:1840-1843
PubMed   |  Link to Article
De Luca G, Suryapranata H, Zijlstra F.  et al.  Primary stenting for acute myocardial infarction in the real world: Zwolle 6 randomized trial [abstract].  Eur Heart J. 2003;24:270
Link to Article

Figures

Figure 1. Abciximab and 30-Day Mortality From Fixed-Effects Model
Graphic Jump Location

The size of the data markers (squares) is approximately proportional to the sample size of each treatment group (primary angioplasty or fibrinolysis). CI indicates confidence interval.

Figure 2. Abciximab and Long-Term (6- and 12-Month) Mortality From Fixed-Effects Model
Graphic Jump Location

The size of the data markers (squares) is approximately proportional to the sample size of each treatment group (primary angioplasty or fibrinolysis). CI indicates confidence interval.
*Indicates 6-month follow-up.

Figure 3. Abciximab and 30-Day Reinfarction
Graphic Jump Location

The size of the data markers (squares) is approximately proportional to the sample size of each treatment group (primary angioplasty or fibrinolysis). CI indicates confidence interval.

Figure 4. Funnel Plot of All Studies Included in the Meta-analysis
Graphic Jump Location

Sample size of each study was plotted against the odds ratio for 30-day mortality (primary end point available from all trials). No skewed distribution was observed, suggesting no publication bias.

Tables

Table Graphic Jump LocationTable. Characteristics of Primary Angioplasty and Fibrinolysis Randomized Trials Included in the Meta-analysis

References

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PubMed   |  Link to Article
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PubMed   |  Link to Article
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PubMed   |  Link to Article
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PubMed   |  Link to Article
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PubMed   |  Link to Article
Neumann FJ, Kastrati A, Schmitt C.  et al.  Effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade with abciximab on clinical and angiographic restenosis rate after the placement of coronary stents following acute myocardial infarction.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35:915-921
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Antman EM, Gibson CM, de Lemos J.  et al. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 14 Investigators.  Combination reperfusion therapy with abciximab and reduced dose reteplase: results from TIMI 14.  Eur Heart J. 2000;21:1944-1953
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Montalescot G, Barragan P, Wittemberg O.  et al.  Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition with coronary stenting for acute myocardial infarction.  N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1895-1903
PubMed   |  Link to Article
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PubMed   |  Link to Article
Lincoff AM, Califf RM, Van de Werf F.  et al.  Mortality at 1 year with combination platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition and reduced-dose fibrinolytic therapy vs conventional fibrinolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: GUSTO V randomized trial.  JAMA. 2002;288:2130-2135
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Antman EM, Louwerenburg HW, Baars HF.  et al.  Enoxaparin as adjunctive antithrombin therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: results of the ENTIRE-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 23 Trial.  Circulation. 2002;105:1642-1649
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Petronio AS, Musumeci G, Limbruno U.  et al.  Abciximab improves 6-month clinical outcome after rescue coronary angioplasty.  Am Heart J. 2002;143:334-341
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Petronio AS, Rovai D, Musumeci G.  et al.  Effects of abciximab on microvascular integrity and left ventricular functional recovery in patients with acute infarction treated by primary coronary angioplasty.  Eur Heart J. 2003;24:67-76
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Zorman S, Zorman D, Noc M. Effects of abciximab pretreatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty.  Am J Cardiol. 2002;90:533-536
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Lee CW, Moon DH, Hong MK.  et al.  Effect of abciximab on myocardial salvage in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary angioplasty.  Am J Cardiol. 2002;90:1243-1246
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Antoniucci D, Rodriguez A, Hempel A.  et al.  A randomized trial comparing primary infarct artery stenting with or without abciximab in acute myocardial infarction.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:1879-1885
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Gyongyosi M, Domanovits H, Benzer W.  et al.  Use of abciximab prior to primary angioplasty in STEMI results in early recanalization of the infarct-related artery and improved myocardial tissue reperfusion—results of the Austrian multi-centre randomized ReoPro-BRIDGING Study.  Eur Heart J. 2004;25:2125-2133
PubMed   |  Link to Article
van't Hof AW, Ernst N, de Boer MJ.  et al.  Facilitation of primary coronary angioplasty by early start of a glycoprotein 2b/3a inhibitor: results of the Ongoing Tirofiban In Myocardial Infarction Evaluation (On-TIME) trial.  Eur Heart J. 2004;25:837-846
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Lee DP, Herity NA, Hiatt BL.  et al.  Adjunctive platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition with tirofiban before primary angioplasty improves angiographic outcomes: results of the Tirofiban Given in the Emergency Room Before Primary Angioplasty (TIGER-PA) pilot trial.  Circulation. 2003;107:1497-1501
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Ndrepepa G, Kastrati A, Neumann FJ.  et al.  Five-year outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction enrolled in a randomised trial assessing the value of abciximab during coronary artery stenting.  Eur Heart J. 2004;25:1635-1640
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Montalescot G, Borentain M, Payot L.  et al.  Early vs late administration of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in primary percutaneous coronary intervention of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis.  JAMA. 2004;292:362-366
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Di Mario C, Bolognese L, Maillard L.  et al.  Combined Abciximab Reteplase Stent Study in Acute Myocardial Infarction (CARESS in AMI).  Am Heart J. 2004;148:378-385
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Ellis SG, Armstrong P, Betriu A.  et al.  Facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention versus primary percutaneous coronary intervention: design and rationale of the Facilitated Intervention With Enhanced Reperfusion Speed to Stop Events (FINESSE) trial.  Am Heart J. 2004;147:E16
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Ohman EM, Kleiman NS, Gacioch G.  et al. IMPACT-AMI Investigators.  Combined accelerated tissue-plasminogen activator and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin receptor blockade with Integrilin in acute myocardial infarction: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial.  Circulation. 1997;95:846-854
PubMed   |  Link to Article
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PubMed   |  Link to Article
Ronner E, van Kesteren HA, Zijnen P.  et al.  Safety and efficacy of eptifibatide vs placebo in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction: a phase II dose escalation, randomised, double-blind study.  Eur Heart J. 2000;21:1530-1536
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Brener SJ, Zeymer U, Adgey AA.  et al.  Eptifibatide and low-dose tissue plasminogen activator in acute myocardial infarction: the integrilin and low-dose thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction (INTRO AMI) trial.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39:377-386
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Giugliano RP, Roe MT, Harrington RA.  et al.  Combination reperfusion therapy with eptifibatide and reduced-dose tenecteplase for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: results of the integrilin and tenecteplase in acute myocardial infarction (INTEGRITI) Phase II Angiographic Trial.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:1251-1260
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Kleiman NS, Ohman EM, Califf RM.  et al.  Profound inhibition of platelet aggregation with monoclonal antibody 7E3 Fab after thrombolytic therapy: results of the Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction (TAMI) 8 Pilot Study.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993;22:381-389
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Peters S, Trummel M, Bratstrom A.  et al.  Pilot study of the effectiveness of combination therapy with reduced dose alteplase and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist tirofiban in acute myocardial infarction [in German].  Z Kardiol. 2002;91:233-237
PubMed   |  Link to Article
de Lemos JA, Antman EM, Gibson CM.  et al.  Abciximab improves both epicardial flow and myocardial reperfusion in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: observations from the TIMI 14 trial.  Circulation. 2000;101:239-243
PubMed   |  Link to Article
van ‘t Hof A, Liem A, Suryapranata H.  et al. Zwolle Myocardial Infarction Study Group.  Angiographic assessment of myocardial reperfusion in patients treated with primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction: myocardial blush grade.  Circulation. 1998;97:2302-2306
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Coller BS. Potential non-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa effects of abciximab.  Am Heart J. 1999;138:S1-S5
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Schwarz M, Nordt T, Bode C.  et al.  The GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab (c7E3) inhibits the binding of various ligands to the leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18, alphaMbeta2).  Thromb Res. 2002;107:121-128
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Eisenberg PR, Sobel BE, Jaffe AS. Activation of prothrombin accompanying thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992;19:1065-1069
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Topol EJ, Neumann FJ, Montalescot G. A preferred reperfusion strategy for acute myocardial infarction.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:1886-1889
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Eisenberg MJ, Jamal S. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition in the setting of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:1-6
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Kandzari DE, Hasselblad V, Tcheng JE.  et al.  Improved clinical outcomes with abciximab therapy in acute myocardial infarction: a systematic overview of randomized clinical trials.  Am Heart J. 2004;147:457-462
PubMed   |  Link to Article
de Queiroz Fernandes Araujo JO, Veloso HH, Braga De Paiva JM.  et al.  Efficacy and safety of abciximab on acute myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.  Am Heart J. 2004;148:937-943
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Rao AK, Pratt C, Berke A.  et al.  Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Trial—phase I: hemorrhagic manifestations and changes in plasma fibrinogen and the fibrinolytic system in patients treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and streptokinase.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988;11:1-11
PubMed   |  Link to Article
GUSTO Investigators.  An international randomized trial comparing four thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction.  N Engl J Med. 1993;329:673-682
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Egger M, Smith GD. Bias in location and selection of studies.  BMJ. 1998;316:61-66
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Savonitto S, Armstrong PW, Lincoff AM.  et al.  Risk of intracranial haemorrhage with combined fibrinolytic and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy in acute myocardial infarction: dichotomous response as a function of age in the GUSTO V trial.  Eur Heart J. 2003;24:1807-1814
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Henriques JP, Zijlstra F, Ottervanger JP.  et al.  Incidence and clinical significance of distal embolization during primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction.  Eur Heart J. 2002;23:1112-1117
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Antoniucci D, Valenti R, Migliorini A.  et al.  Abciximab therapy improves survival in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by early cardiogenic shock undergoing coronary artery stent implantation.  Am J Cardiol. 2002;90:353-357
PubMed   |  Link to Article
De Luca G, Suryapranata H, Zijlstra F.  et al. Zwolle Myocardial Infarction Study Group.  Symptom-onset-to-balloon time and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by primary angioplasty.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:991-997
PubMed   |  Link to Article
De Luca G, Ernst N, Zijlstra F.  et al.  Preprocedural TIMI flow and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by primary angioplasty.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:1363-1367
PubMed   |  Link to Article
O'Neill WW, Weintraub R, Grines CL.  et al.  A prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of intravenous streptokinase and angioplasty versus lone angioplasty therapy of acute myocardial infarction.  Circulation. 1992;86:1710-1717
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Ross AM, Coyne KS, Reiner JS.  et al.  A randomized trial comparing primary angioplasty with a strategy of short-acting thrombolysis and immediate planned rescue angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction: the PACT trial.  J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;34:1954-1962
PubMed   |  Link to Article
Wohrle J, Grebe OC, Nusser T.  et al.  Reduction of major adverse cardiac events with intracoronary compared with intravenous bolus application of abciximab in patients with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina undergoing coronary angioplasty.  Circulation. 2003;107:1840-1843
PubMed   |  Link to Article
De Luca G, Suryapranata H, Zijlstra F.  et al.  Primary stenting for acute myocardial infarction in the real world: Zwolle 6 randomized trial [abstract].  Eur Heart J. 2003;24:270
Link to Article

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