Author Contributions: Dr Reyburn had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Reyburn, Carneiro,
Nkya, Lemnge, Greenwood, Riley.
Acquisition of data: Reyburn, Mbatia, Drakeley,
Carneiro, Olomi, Cox, Nkya, Lemnge.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Reyburn,
Mbatia, Drakeley, Bruce, Carneiro, Nkya, Lemnge.
Drafting of the manuscript: Reyburn, Mbatia,
Drakeley, Bruce, Nkya, Lemnge, Riley.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Reyburn, Mbatia, Drakeley, Bruce, Carneiro, Olomi,
Cox, Nkya, Lemnge, Greenwood.
Statistical analysis: Reyburn, Bruce, Carneiro,
Obtained funding: Lemnge, Greenwood, Riley.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Mbatia, Drakeley, Olomi, Cox, Nkya, Lemnge, Riley.
Study supervision: Reyburn, Mbatia, Drakeley,
Olomi, Lemnge, Riley.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the
UK Medical Research Council grant 9901439.
Role of the Sponsor: The UK Medical Research
Council did not participate in the design and conduct of the study, in the
collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation,
review, or approval of the manuscript. The manuscript was approved for publication
by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and by the director
of the National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania.
Disclaimer: The opinions contained in this
article are those of the authors and are not to be construed as official or
reflecting the views of the UK Medical Research Council. Use of trade names
is for identification purposes and does not imply endorsement by the UK Medical
Research Council or any organization involved in this study.
Acknowledgment: We thank the regional, district,
and hospital staff who assisted in this study, in particular William Mwengee,
Herbert Mbwhana, S. Mgema, Balthazar Ngoli, Charles Kifunda, Werner Shimana,
Cleopa Mbwambo, Justina Mushi, Sister Henrika, Christon Nkya, Alan Minja,
William Silayo, Sr Dr Safari, Richard Mcharo, Waziri Semarundu, Raymond Urassa,
Richard Collins, Francis Assenga, Hilda Mbakilwa, Sia Nelson, Nsia Muro, Elizabeth
Msoka, Theresa Mtui, Sarah Mushi, and Michael Irira. We also thank the laboratory
staff who read blood films: Esther Lyatu, Alutu Masokoto, Frank Magogo, Nico
Funga, Lincoln Male, William Chambo, and Zacharia Savaeli. We are grateful
for contributions to design and analysis from Thor Theander and Daniel Chandramohan.
We thank the patients and their relatives who agreed to participate in the
study. This study was conducted as part of the Joint Malaria Programme, a
collaboration between the National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania,
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, London School of Hygiene and Tropical
Medicine, and Centre for Medical Parasitology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.