Author Contributions: Dr Weissman had full
access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Weissman, Annas,
Epstein, Schneider, Clarridge, Kirle, Gatsonis, Feibelmann, Ridley.
Acquisition of data: Weissman, Clarridge, Gatsonis.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Weissman,
Schneider, Gatsonis, Feibelmann.
Drafting of the manuscript: Weissman, Annas,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Weissman, Annas, Epstein, Schneider, Clarridge,
Kirle, Gatsonis, Feibelmann, Ridley.
Statistical analysis: Weissman, Gatsonis.
Obtained funding: Weissman, Schneider, Ridley.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Weissman, Annas, Clarridge, Feibelmann.
Study supervision: Weissman, Epstein, Schneider,
Clarridge, Kirle, Ridley.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This work was supported by
cooperative agreement 5 U18 HS11928 from the Agency for Healthcare Research
Role of the Sponsor: The Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality did not participate in the design and conduct of the
study; in the management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in
the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We wish to acknowledge the
help and support of the state agencies and the 6 state hospital associations
that aided in identifying the study sample and writing letters urging their
participation. In particular, we wish to acknowledge the following: Ronald
Hollander, President, Massachusetts Hospital Association; Michael Boyson,
Director of Data Services and Research, Colorado Health and Hospital Association;
Sharon Haney, Program Manager, Hospital Complaints and Survey, Colorado Department
of Public Health & Environment Health Facilities Division; Larry Wall,
President, Colorado Health and Hospital Association; Karen Peterson, Chief
Operating Officer, Florida Hospital Association; Charlene Willoughby, (former)
Manager, Division of Medical Quality Assurance, Florida Department of Health;
Wayne Nesmith, President, Florida Hospital Association; John Combes, Senior
Medical Advisor, Hospital & Healthsystem Association of Pennsylvania;
Sandra Knoble, Director, Division of Acute and Ambulatory Care, Pennsylvania
Department of Health; Carolyn Scanlan, President and Chief Executive Officer,
Hospital & Healthsystem Association of Pennsylvania; Vi Naylor, Executive
Vice President, Georgia Hospital Association; Starr West, Director of Health
Care Quality, Texas Hospital Association; and John Evans, (former) Hospital
Licensing Board Director, Texas Department of Health. We also thank Jill Rosenthal
from the National Academy for State Health Policy, and Trish Riley, formerly
of the National Academy for State Health Policy, for aid in identifying state
systems and describing their attributes; Jack Fowler for advice on questionnaire
design; and Loraine Scampini for programming.