Author Contributions: Dr Koppel had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Koppel, Metlay, Localio,
Acquisition of data: Koppel, Cohen, Abaluck,
Analysis and interpretation of data: Koppel,
Cohen, Abaluck, Localio.
Drafting of the manuscript: Koppel, Cohen.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Koppel, Metlay, Cohen, Abaluck, Localio, Kimmel,
Statistical analysis: Koppel, Cohen.
Obtained funding: Koppel, Metlay, Localio,
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Koppel, Cohen, Localio, Strom.
Study supervision: Koppel, Cohen, Strom.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: This research was supported
by a grant from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), P01
HS11530-01, Improving Patient Safety Through Reduction in Medication Errors.
Dr Metlay is also supported through an Advanced Research Career Development
Award from the Health Services Research and Development Service of the Department
of Veterans Affairs.
Role of the Sponsors: Neither AHRQ nor the
Department of Veterans Affairs had any role in the design and conduct of the
study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or
the approval of the manuscript.
Project Advisory Committee: Linda H. Aiken,
PhD, University of Pennsylvania; David W. Bates, MD, MSc, Harvard School of
Medicine; Shawn Becker, RN, US Pharmacopeia; Marc L. Berger, MD, Merck &
Co; Steven L. Sauter, PhD, National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health; Thomas Snedden, PA, Department of Aging; Paul D. Stolley, MD, MPH,
University of Maryland; Joel Leon Telles, PhD, Delaware Valley Healthcare
Council of Hospital Association of Pennsylvania.
Acknowledgment: We thank Charles Leonard, PharmD;
Frank Sites, MHA, RN; Joel Telles, PhD; Edmund Weisburg, MS; and Ruthann Auten,