Author Contributions: Dr Hooton had full access
to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Hooton, Scholes,
Gupta, Stapleton, Roberts, Stamm.
Acquisition of data: Hooton, Stamm.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Hooton,
Scholes, Gupta, Stapleton, Roberts, Stamm.
Drafting of the manuscript: Hooton, Scholes,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Hooton, Scholes, Gupta, Stapleton, Roberts, Stamm.
Statistical analysis: Hooton, Scholes, Gupta,
Obtained funding: Hooton, Stamm.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Hooton, Stapleton, Stamm.
Study supervision: Hooton, Scholes, Stamm.
Financial Disclosures: Dr Hooton has received
honoraria from Bayer for consulting and speaking, honoraria from Ortho McNeil,
Bristol-Myers Squibb, and GlaxoSmithKline for speaking, and research support
from MedImmune; Dr Gupta has received honoraria from Bayer, Procter and Gamble,
and Ortho McNeil for consulting and speaking, and research support from Procter
and Gamble; Dr Stamm has consulted and received research grants from Procter
and Gamble and MedImmune and consulted for Osel; and Ms Roberts has received
research support from Procter and Gamble.
Funding/Support: This study was supported by
grant 1 PO DK53369 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and
Kidney Diseases (Walter E. Stamm, principal investigator).
Role of the Sponsor: Representatives of Bayer
and Glaxo SmithKline had no input into the design or conduct of the study;
in the collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; or
in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript. No support was
given by either company to conduct the study.
Acknowledgment: We wish to thank Elaine Jong,
MD, Medical Director, and the staff at Hall Health Center for helping with
subject enrollment, Carol Winter, ARNP, for subject enrollment and Natalie
DeShaw for assistance with patient care and data collection at Hall Health
Center and, at Group Health Cooperative, Fae Neumann, RN, and Kim Caudill,
BS, for helping with patient enrollment and data collection, Mansour Somadpour,
PhD, for performing strain ribotyping, and Marsha Cox, BS, Cheryl Wobbe, and
Sheila Manuguid, BS, at the University of Washington UTI Research Laboratory
for laboratory assistance.