Diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is usually done by a urologist (a doctor with specialized training in surgery
of the urinary tract). Urine may be sent to the lab for analysis, cell count,
or culture. Cystoscopy, passing a lighted tube into
the bladder through the urethra (the tube that carries
urine from the bladder to outside the body), may be performed to see the inner
lining of the bladder and examine it for growths or tumors. Biopsies (small samples of tissue) may be taken to examine under a
microscope. Other testing may include an intravenous pyelogram, an x-ray test using dye to look at the kidneys and ureters, the tubes that drain urine into the bladder from the kidneys.
If more invasive bladder cancer is suspected, other tests may be done to determine
if the cancer has spread to other areas.