Author Contributions: Dr Grossman had full
access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity
of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Grossman, Mueller,
Acquisition of data: Grossman, Mueller, Riedy,
Dowd, Villaveces, Prodzinski, Nakagawara, Howard, Thiersch, Harruff.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Grossman,
Mueller, Riedy, Dowd, Villaveces, Nakagawara.
Drafting of the manuscript: Grossman, Nakagawara,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Grossman, Mueller, Riedy, Dowd, Villaveces, Prodzinski,
Statistical analysis: Mueller, Villaveces.
Obtained funding: Grossman, Mueller.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Grossman, Dowd, Villaveces, Prodzinski, Howard, Thiersch, Harruff.
Study supervision: Grossman, Mueller, Dowd.
Financial Disclosures: None reported.
Funding/Support: Funding for this study was
provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (grant R49/CCR015592).
Role of the Sponsor: The Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention did not participate in the design and conduct of the
study; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; or in
the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We wish to acknowledge the
dedicated efforts of Rosalie Ginnett, Sarah Parkhurst, RN, and Lori Thomas,
RN, in the conduct of this study; Lynda Voigt, PhD, MN, for advice on study
design; and Peter Cummings, MD, MPH, and Tom Koepsell, MD, MPH, for their
thoughtful review and comments of earlier drafts. We are also deeply grateful
to the following medical examiners, coroners, and trauma managers for their
assistance with the study: Gina M Fino, MD; Nikolas Hartshorne, MD (deceased);
Tammy Retzloff, RN; Ted Walkey, MD; Dennis Wickham, MD. Eve Adams provided
expert assistance with the preparation of the manuscript.