Financial Disclosure: Mr Myklebust is an employee
of Laerdal Medical Corp, which developed the monitor/defibrillator.
Author Contributions: Drs Wik, Kramer-Johansen,
and Steen had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility
for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Wik, Kramer-Johansen,
Acquisition of data: Kramer-Johansen, Myklebust,
Sørebø, Svensson, Fellows.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Wik, Kramer-Johansen,
Myklebust, Svensson, Steen.
Drafting of the manuscript: Wik, Kramer-Johansen,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: .Wik, Kramer-Johansen, Myklebust, Sørebø,
Svensson, Fellows, Steen.
Statistical expertise: Kramer-Johansen.
Obtained funding: Myklebust, Svensson, Steen.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Wik, Myklebust, Svensson, Fellows, Steen.
Study supervision: Wik, Myklebust, Sørebø,
Svensson, Fellows, Steen.
Funding/Support and Role of Sponsors: Laerdal
Medical Corp (Stavanger, Norway) supplied defibrillators, the custom-made
computer program used for viewing and annotating the data, and the server
used. Laerdal paid the salaries for Mr Myklebust and other of their personnel
who preprocessed the data by filtering and down-sampling to 50 Hz. Laerdal
paid for 40 hours of instructor time for refresher ACLS courses in Stockholm,
Sweden, for overtime required for data handling at study sites, and for all
travel to study sites and investigator meetings. All other funding was obtained
from the following independent foundations: Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation,
Laerdal Foundation for Acute Medicine, and Jahre Foundation. As stated in
the protocol, Laerdal Medical could not influence manuscript submission (their
employee, Mr Myklebust, could have withdrawn as an author). Except as stated
herein, the sponsors played no role in the design and conduct of the study,
in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation,
review, or approval of the manuscript.
Acknowledgment: We thank all of the paramedics
and nurses who performed CPR for their contribution to this study. In addition,
the following CPR instructors were of exceptional value: Jan Ottem, Lars Didrik
Flingtorp, Helena Borovszky, RN, Lars Safsten, RN, Andrew Nord, and Allan
Bromley. We also thank Ståle Freyer, Mette Stavland, Linn Somme, and
Geir Inge Tellnes for their important technical help. Finally, we thank our
US collaborators, Lance Becker, MD, and Ben Abella, MD, MPhil, for their input
during the planning and performance of our study.