Financial Disclosures: Drs Sukhatme and Karumanchi
are named as coinventors on a pending patent filed by Beth Israel Deaconess
Medical Center for the use of angiogenesis-related proteins for diagnosis
and treatment of preeclampsia.
Author Contributions: Drs Levine and Karumanchi
had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for
the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study concept and design: Levine, Thadhani,
Acquisition of data: Levine, Lam, Sibai, Karumanchi.
Analysis and interpretation of data: Levine,
Thadhani, Qian, Lam, Lim, Yu, Blink, Sachs, Epstein, Sukhatme, Karumanchi.
Drafting of the manuscript: Levine, Thadhani,
Critical revision of the manuscript for important
intellectual content: Levine, Thadhani, Qian, Lam, Lim, Yu, Blink,
Sachs, Epstein, Sibai, Sukhatme, Karumanchi.
Statistical analysis: Qian, Yu.
Obtained funding: Levine, Karumanchi.
Administrative, technical, or material support:
Levine, Qian, Blink.
Study supervision: Levine, Karumanchi.
Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention Study Group: University
of Alabama at Birmingham: J. C. Hauth, R. Goldenberg, B. S. Stofan; University
of New Mexico at Albuquerque: L. B. Curet, G. M. Joffe, V. Dorato; University
of Tennessee at Memphis: B. M. Sibai, S. A. Friedman, B. M. Mercer, T. Carr;
Case Western Reserve University at MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland,
Ohio: P. M. Catalano, A. S. Petrulis, L. Barabach; Oregon Health Sciences
University, Portland: C. Morris, S. L. Jacobson, K. McCracken; EMMES Corp,
Rockville, Md: J. R. Esterlitz, M. G. Ewell, D. M. Brown; National Institute
of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD): R. J. Levine, R. DerSimonian,
J. D. Clemens, M. A. Klebanoff, E. G. Raymond, J. G. Rigau-Perez, H. Shifrin;
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI): J. A. Cutler, D. E. Bild.
Data Safety and Monitoring Board: M Lindheimer, C. Begg, T. Chalmers, M. Druzin,
Funding/Support: This study was funded by the
American Society of Nephrology Carl W. Gottschalk Research Scholar Award,
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Department of Medicine, Obstetrics &
Gynecology seed funds to Dr Karumanchi, and by intramural funding of Dr Levine
from the NICHD. Salary support for Dr Karumanchi was provided through a National
Institutes of Health physician-scientist award (KO8-DK-002825). The CPEP trial
was supported by the NICHD under contracts N01-HD-1-3121 through 3126, N01-HD-3154,
and N01-HD-5-3246, with cofunding from the NHLBI. Dr Thadhani is funded by
grant R01-HD-3-9223 from the NICHD.
Role of the Sponsors: The funding organizations
had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management,
analysis, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation and review of
the manuscript for submission. The manuscript was approved for submission
by the Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research of the
Acknowledgment: We are indebted to the CPEP
Study Group, who assembled the database and specimen repository used here,
and to the patients who took part in the study. We thank Patricia Moyer for
assistance with the figures.